Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods1

@article{Sampson1999SystematicSO,
  title={Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods1},
  author={Robert J. Sampson and Stephen Raudenbush},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  year={1999},
  volume={105},
  pages={603 - 651}
}
This article assesses the sources and consequences of public disorder. Based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, highly reliable scales of social and physical disorder for 196 neighborhoods are constructed. Census data, police records, and an independent survey of more than 3,500 residents are then integrated to test a theory of collective efficacy and structural constraints. Defined as cohesion among residents combined with shared… 
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