Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Medications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

@article{Bolen2007SystematicRC,
  title={Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Medications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus},
  author={Shari D. Bolen and Leonard Feldman and Jason L. Vassy and Lisa M Wilson and Hsin-Chieh Yeh and Spyridon Marinopoulos and Crystal. Wiley and Elizabeth Selvin and Renee F Wilson and Eric B. Bass and Frederick L. Brancati},
  journal={Annals of Internal Medicine},
  year={2007},
  volume={147},
  pages={386-399}
}
The prevalence and morbidity associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus continue to increase in the United States and elsewhere (1, 2). Several studies of the treatment of type 2 diabetes suggest that improved glycemic control reduces microvascular risks (37). In contrast, the effects of treatment on macrovascular risk are more controversial (3, 4, 8, 9), and the comparative effects of oral diabetes agents on clinical outcomes are even less certain. As newer oral agents, such as… 
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References

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TLDR
Although glycemic goals should be individualized based on several clinical factors, most patients with type 2 diabetes would probably benefit from glucose lowering to a hemoglobin A1c level between 7% and 8%.
A meta-analysis comparing the effect of thiazolidinediones on cardiovascular risk factors.
TLDR
Thiazolidinediones have similar effects on glycemic control and body weight and head-to-head comparative trials as well as longer-term cardiovascular outcome studies are needed to determine whether there are differences in efficacy between the 2 thiazolidinees.
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TLDR
This meta-analysis of randomized-controlled clinical trials suggests that metformin has no intrinsic effect on blood pressure, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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TLDR
Metformin may be the first therapeutic option in the diabetes mellitus type 2 with overweight or obesity, as it may prevent some vascular complications, and mortality.
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TLDR
The present study assessed the safety of repaglinide versus glibenclamide in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, in terms of hypoglycemia and adverse events.
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TLDR
This study created a model to calculate the risks for developing blindness and end-stage renal disease for patients at different ages of diabetes onset and levels of glycemic control and addressed clinical risks and benefits associated with gly glucose control.
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TLDR
There is no evidence from prospective comparative trials or from observational cohort studies that metformin is associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis, or with increased levels of lactate, compared to other anti-hyperglycemic treatments if prescribed under the study conditions.
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TLDR
The response to treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin in a subgroup of patients recruited to the UKPS who continued to have marked hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic symptoms during the initial 3 months of diet therapy and in whom continued diet therapy alone was not an option is reported.
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