Systematic Review: A Century of Inhalational Anthrax Cases from 1900 to 2005

  title={Systematic Review: A Century of Inhalational Anthrax Cases from 1900 to 2005},
  author={Jon-Erik C Holty and Dena M. Bravata and Hau Liu and Richard A. Olshen and Kathryn M. McDonald and Douglas K. Owens},
  journal={Annals of Internal Medicine},
Key Summary Points Initiation of antibiotic or anthrax antiserum therapy during the prodromal phase of inhalational anthrax is associated with an improved short-term survival. Multidrug antibiotic regimens are associated with decreased mortality, especially when they are administered during the prodromal phase. Most surviving patients will probably require drainage of reaccumulating pleural effusions. Despite modern intensive care, fulminant-phase anthrax is rarely survivable. The 2001 anthrax… 
Antimicrobial Treatment for Systemic Anthrax: Analysis of Cases from 1945 to 2014 Identified Through a Systematic Literature Review.
Combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy may be appropriate in severe anthrax disease, particularly anthrax meningitis, in a mass casualty incident.
Does anthrax antitoxin therapy have a role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax?
  • N. Vietri
  • Medicine, Biology
    Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • 2018
There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating that anthrax antitoxin therapy, when combined with a therapeutic course of antibiotics provides a survival benefit in inhalational anthrax, and additional research is needed in improved anthrax-antitoxin therapies.
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A case of initially unrecognised, inhalational anthrax in a vaccinated member of the armed forces is presented, presenting with severe, sudden-onset central chest pain at rest.
An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users
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Antitoxin Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax: A Systematic Review.
Limited animal data suggest that adjunctive antitoxin therapy may improve survival, and a point-of-care assay correlating toxin levels with clinical status may provide important information to guide antitoxin use during a large-scale anthrax incident.
Efficacy Projection of Obiltoxaximab for Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax across a Range of Disease Severity
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Added Benefit of Raxibacumab to Antibiotic Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax
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Several novel and pre-existing antibiotics, as well as toxin inhibitors, have shown increasing promise and are probably necessary for effectively combatting this armed bacterium.
Identifying Meningitis During an Anthrax Mass Casualty Incident: Systematic Review of Systemic Anthrax Since 1880.
An evidence-based assessment tool for screening patients for meningitis during an anthrax mass casualty incident is developed and could improve both patient outcomes and resource allocation in such an event.


Inhalational anthrax: radiologic and pathologic findings in two cases.
The clinical course of two of the affected patients is described, with emphasis on imaging findings, in an effort to increase clinician awareness about this disease.
Clinical predictors of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax
Fatal inhalational anthrax in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman.
The patient's clinical course was characterized by progression of respiratory insufficiency, pleural effusions and pulmonary edema, and, ultimately, death, and viable B anthracis was present in postmortem mediastinal lymph node specimens.
Fatal case of inhalational anthrax mimicking intra-abdominal sepsis.
This case highlights two of the major characteristics of inhalational anthrax: the fulminating nature of the infection and the difficulty of promptly establishing a diagnosis.
Accuracy of Screening for Inhalational Anthrax after a Bioterrorist Attack
This synthesis compares reported symptoms of 28 patients with inhalational anthrax and 4694 patients with viral respiratory tract illnesses to establish an evidence base for developing a screening protocol for inhalational Anthrax.
Symptoms associated with anthrax exposure: suspected "aborted" anthrax
Abstract Anthrax is a naturally occurring organism with a low incidence of infection. There are no known cases of human-to-human transmission. Bioterrorism-related anthrax in the United States has
Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States.
Clinical presentation and course of cases of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax, in the District of Columbia, Florida, New Jersey, and New York, are described; survival of patients was markedly higher than previously reported.
Clinical presentation of inhalational anthrax following bioterrorism exposure: report of 2 surviving patients.
Treatment with antibiotics, including intravenous ciprofloxacin, rifampin, and clindamycin, and supportive therapy appears to have slowed the progression of inhalational anthrax and has resulted to date in survival.
Death due to bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: report of 2 patients.
Clinicians have an urgent need for prompt communication of vital epidemiologic information that could focus their diagnostic evaluation, and rapid diagnostic assays to distinguish more common infectious processes from agents of bioterrorism also could improve management strategies.