System reliability optimization with multi-level decision

@article{Chern1986SystemRO,
  title={System reliability optimization with multi-level decision},
  author={Maw-Sheng Chern and Rong-Hong Jan},
  journal={1986 25th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control},
  year={1986},
  pages={1846-1847}
}
In many decentralized organizations, resource planning with sequential decision making can be formulated as a multi-level (hierarchical) programming problem. In such problems, the decision variables are partitioned among the decision makers and each of them optimizes his own objective function. For example, the high level decision maker concerns with minimum pollution and the low level decision maker concerns with maximum system reliability.