Syria: from ‘authoritarian upgrading’ to revolution?

  title={Syria: from ‘authoritarian upgrading’ to revolution?},
  author={R. Hinnebusch},
  journal={International Affairs},
Syria was, until recently, seen as a ‘successful’ example of authoritarian ‘upgrading’ or ‘modernization;’ yet in 2011 the Syrian regime faced revolution from below: what went wrong? Bashar al-Asad inherited a flawed regime yet managed to start the integration of his country into the world capitalist market, without forfeiting the nationalist card by, for instance, attempting to acquire legitimacy from opposition to Israel and the US invasion of Iraq. Yet, despite his expectations and that of… Expand
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