Synusial Approaches to Classification

  title={Synusial Approaches to Classification},
  author={Jan J. Barkman},
Most of the classifications discussed in this volume apply in principle to communities or biocoenoses — i.e. the whole assemblages of organisms that live together in a particular site or biotope. Since the plants make up by far the largest part of the biomass, as well as the essential structure of land communities, it is reasonable to base our classifications upon the plants. Yet the plant community itself is often a complexly organized system, comprising groups of plants on different levels… 
The whole and its parts: why and how to disentangle plant communities and synusiae in vegetation classification
Most plant communities consist of different structural and ecological subsets, ranging from cryptogams to different tree layers. The completeness and approach with which these subsets are sampled
Numerical approaches to lake classification with special reference to macrophyte communities
Various approaches to the classification of S. Swedish lakes on the basis of their macrophyte composition are discussed. A main division is made between species or life-form, and synusia or community
Plant communities, synusiae and the arithmetic of a sustainable classification
We propose an equation to evaluate the efficiency of a classification as a function of the effort required and the population size of data collectors. The formula postulates a “classification
Phytobase: a tool for the integrated synusial approach of vegetation classification at regional to national scale
Phytobase is a relational database management system devoted to the management of vegetation survey data, following the concepts of the integrated synusial phytosociology. This 4D application has
The study of macrofungal communities: defining adequate sampling units by means of cluster analysis
A fungus-biotope and a cluster analysis of macrofungal communities were done across a sequence of four forest associations in the Laurentide Mountains of Québec. Comparison between different scales
Environmental relations of the bryophytic and vascular components of a talus slope plant community
Since separate components of the talus vegetation were shown to respond differently to the same environmental variable, groups of taxa should not be excluded from community level studies without a consideration of the possible consequences of this bias.
A functional classification of wetland plants
  • C. Kin
  • Environmental Science
  • 1993
The search for guilds in plant communities is reviewed, and three main functional groups are found: ruderals, matrix and interstitial species, which are subdivide into a total of seven guilds.
The coenological organization of ectomycorrhizal macrofungi in the Laurentide Mountains of Quebec
Laurentide groupings appear to be isolated from other macrofungal assemblages in North American temperate forests and mainly affected by geographic partitioning of sites and by the physiognomy and type of forest vegetation within a given phytoclimatic region.
Classification and Mapping of Plant Communities : a Review with Emphasis on Tropical Vegetation
Methods of classifying vegetation are reviewed. Classification is aimed at portraying either potential or existing vegetation. Potential vegetation is commonly mapped using bioclimatic classification


Up to the present the water-plant communities have been studied in the same way as the terrestrial plant communities. As water and land differ fundamentally as a habitat for plants it is not
Ecology of Fungi in the Chicago Region
Some of the communities of fungi and their successional relations are set forth, including the Agaricales and the larger Ascomycetes, the only fungi considered here, which produce carpophores large enough to be readily observed in field study.
The Unistratal Concept of Plant Communities (the Unions)
It is unlikely that even two species can be found which agree exactly in all their habitat requirements, so the range of fluctuation of a given factor of the habitat in regard to a plant community is always less than the amplitude of fluctuations of the same factor for the extreme species of thesame community.
Synusiae as a basis for plant sociological field work
It remained for Lippmaa to elevate the synusiae (homogeneous life-form communities) to the full rank of associations, and his treatment of the vegetation of Esthonia and the Isalnd of Abruka (Abro) on the basis of his one-layered association concept is the first consistent handling of theenery of a region strictly based onsynusiae.
Enige waterplantengemeenschappen in Zeeland
The paucity of the waterplant flora of the province of Zeeland is ascribed to the difficult access by fresh-water species, and the faithful species are Callitriche obtusangula and Ranunculus baudotii, which both show a mediterranean-atlantic distribution pattern.
The altitudinal sequence of climax vegetation on Mt Anglem, Stewart Island
Summary The composition of ground and epiphytic plant communities, consisting mainly cf bryophytes, is recorded in samples from c:ght stands of climax vegetation at different altitudes on Mt Anglem,
The Use of Phytosociological Methods in Ecological Investigations: I. The Braun-Blanquet System
V. VEGETATION STUDIES . . . . . . . . . 612 A. Carex hostiana-C. demissa and Carex demissa-C. panicea noda 612 B. Carex saxatilis sociation . . . . . . . . 618 C. High altitude Nardus stricta
The Tropical Rain Forest: An Ecological Study
Preface 1. Introduction Part I. Structure and Physiognomy: 2. Structure of primary forest 3. Regeneration 4. Trees and shrubs (i) Vegetative features 5. Trees and shrubs (ii) Reproductive biology 6.
The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography
" The publication of a collected edition in English of the works of Professor Raunkiaer is a considerable event in the history of the science of vegetation; and Englishspeaking students of the
La structure du Rosmarineto-Lithospermetum helianthemetosum en Bas-Languedoc
Le Rosmarineto-Lithospermetum, defini par J. Braun—Blanquet (1924) en Languedoc, a ete etudie ensuite par R. Molinier (1934) en Provence occidentale et par G. Braun—Blanquet (1936) dans le