Synthetic polyploids of Tragopogon miscellus and T. mirus (Asteraceae): 60 Years after Ownbey's discovery.

@article{Tate2009SyntheticPO,
  title={Synthetic polyploids of Tragopogon miscellus and T. mirus (Asteraceae): 60 Years after Ownbey's discovery.},
  author={Jennifer A. Tate and V. Vaughan Symonds and Andrew N. Doust and Richard J. A. Buggs and Evgeny V. Mavrodiev and Lucas C. Majure and Pamela S. Soltis and Douglas E. Soltis},
  journal={American journal of botany},
  year={2009},
  volume={96 5},
  pages={
          979-88
        }
}
In plants, polyploidy has been a significant evolutionary force on both recent and ancient time scales. In 1950, Ownbey reported two newly formed Tragopogon allopolyploids in the northwestern United States. We have made the first synthetic lines of T. mirus and T. miscellus using T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis as parents and colchicine treatment of F(1) hybrids. We also produced allotetraploids between T. porrifolius and T. pratensis, which are not known from nature. We report on… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Ribosomal RNA genes evolution in Tragopogon: A story of New and Old World allotetraploids and the synthetic lines

The fact that some rDNA genotypes seen in 80­year­old allopolyploids are already evident in the first generation of synthetic lines supports the hypothesis that the extent and tempo of rDNA homogenization in older allopoly Ploids is largely influenced by genetic and epigenetic changes in the early generations.

Similar patterns of rDNA evolution in synthetic and recently formed natural populations of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) allotetraploids

Uniparental reductions of homeologous rRNA gene copies occurred in both synthetic and natural populations of Tragopogon allopolyploids, and the extent of these rDNA changes was generally higher in natural populations than in the synthetic lines.

Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae)

BackgroundAlthough polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and

Additional origins of Ownbey's Tragopogon mirus

Plastid sequences indicate that T.porrifolius was the maternal parent for both the AZ and OR collections of T. mirus, and the more genetically distant sample from OR, in ongoing investigations of the genetic and genomic consequences of recent allopolyploidy.

Biochemical novelty in Tragopogon : a paradigm for understanding the ‘ success ’ of polyploids

It is observed that the dynamic nature of polyploid genomes—with alterations in gene content, gene number, gene arrangement, gene expression and transposon activity— may generate sufficient novelty that every individual in a polyploids population or species may be unique.

Gene loss and silencing in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae): comparison of natural and synthetic allotetraploids

Hphazard loss and silencing of homoeologues are shown, occurring within decades of polyploid formation in T. miscellus, but not in the initial generation.

Comparative proteomics of the recently and recurrently formed natural allopolyploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae) and its parents.

The results indicate that the impact of hybridization on the proteome is more important than is polyploidization, and two cases of homeolog-specific expression in T. mirus suggest that silencing was not associated with hybridization itself, but occurred subsequent to both hybridization and polyploidsization.

DYNAMICS OF POLYPLOID FORMATION IN TRAGOPOGON (ASTERACEAE): RECURRENT FORMATION, GENE FLOW, AND POPULATION STRUCTURE

Progenitor‐specific microsatellite markers are applied to examine the genetic contributions to each tetraploid species and to assess gene flow among populations of independent formation, suggesting potential reproductive barriers among separate lineages in both polyploidspecies.

Polyploidy and novelty: Gottlieb's legacy

It is observed that the dynamic nature of polyploid genomes—with alterations in gene content, gene number, gene arrangement, gene expression and transposon activity—may generate sufficient novelty that every individual in a polyploids population or species may be unique.

Synthetic polyploids in Vicia cracca: methodology, effects on plant performance and aneuploidy

This work optimized methodology to produce synthetic polyploids in Vicia cracca and explored the differences in stomata size, time to germination and plant size between synthetic and natural polyploidoids and diploids.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 62 REFERENCES

Recent and recurrent polyploidy in Tragopogon (Asteraceae): cytogenetic, genomic and genetic comparisons

It is shown that multiple origins of a polyploid species not only affect patterns of genetic variation in natural populations, but also contribute to differential patterns of gene expression and may therefore play a major role in the long-term evolution of polyploids.

Evolution and Expression of Homeologous Loci in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae), a Recent and Reciprocally Formed Allopolyploid

Synthetic F1 hybrids between putative diploid progenitors are additive of their parental genomes, suggesting that polyploidization rather than hybridization induces genomic changes in Tragopogon.

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of recently evolved Tragopogon (Asteraceae) allopolyploids reveal a karyotype that is additive of the diploid progenitors.

There was no evidence for major genomic rearrangements in Tragopogon allopolyploids that have arisen multiple times in North America within the last 80 yr.

CYTOPLASMIC INHERITANCE AND RECIPROCAL AMPHIPLOIDY IN TRAGOPOGON

In an attempt to resynthesize the two tetraploid species, Tragopogon mirus (amphiploid T. dubius X plorrifolius) and T. miscellus and a number of tetraPloid interspecific hybrids obtained, striking reciprocal differences appeared in the F1 hybrids involving T. pratensis and apparently the same phenomenon occurs on the tetraPLoid level.

Rapid Concerted Evolution of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA in Two Tragopogon Allopolyploids of Recent and Recurrent Origin Sequence data from this article have been deposited with the EMBL/GenBank Data Libraries under accession nos. AY458586, AY458588, AY458589, and AY458587

The earliest herbarium specimens of the allotetraploids (1949 and 1953) are used to represent the genomic condition near the time of polyploidization, and it is found that the parental rDNA repeats were inherited in roughly equal numbers.

ALLOPOLYPLOID SPECIATION IN TRAGOPOGON: INSIGHTS FROM CHLOROPLAST DNA

Chloroplast DNA data suggest that pollen load may be an important factor in determining the male and female parents of allopolyploid angiosperms.

Multiple Origins of the Allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Compositae): rDNA Evidence

Both allotetraploids arose within the current century in the Palouse region of eastern Washington and adjacent Idaho following the introduction and naturalization of their diploid progenitors, all of which are native to the Old World.

Rapid Chromosome Evolution in Recently Formed Polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)

The results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation.

Origins, establishment and evolution of new polyploid species: Senecio cambrensis and S. eboracensis in the British Isles

Two new polyploid species of Senecio have originated in the British Isles in recent times following hybridization between native S. vulgaris and S. eboracensis, and what is known about when and how each species originated, and their reproductive isolation from parents due to high selfing rates is reviewed.

Gene loss and silencing in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae): comparison of natural and synthetic allotetraploids

Hphazard loss and silencing of homoeologues are shown, occurring within decades of polyploid formation in T. miscellus, but not in the initial generation.
...