Synthetic Turf Fields, Crumb Rubber, and Alleged Cancer Risk

@article{Bleyer2017SyntheticTF,
  title={Synthetic Turf Fields, Crumb Rubber, and Alleged Cancer Risk},
  author={Archie Bleyer},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
  year={2017},
  volume={47},
  pages={2437-2441}
}
  • A. Bleyer
  • Published 11 May 2017
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Sports Medicine
Most synthetic turf fields have crumb rubber interspersed among the simulated grass fibers to reduce athletic injuries by allowing users to turn and slide more readily as they play sports or exercise on the fields. Recently, the crumbs have been implicated in causing cancer in adolescents and young adults who use the fields, particularly lymphoma and primarily in soccer goalkeepers. This concern has led to the initiation of large-scale studies by local and federal governments that are expected… 
Evaluation of potential carcinogenicity of organic chemicals in synthetic turf crumb rubber
TLDR
It is demonstrated that computational toxicology assessment in conjunction with government classifications can be used to prioritize hazardous chemicals for future exposure monitoring studies for users of synthetic turf fields and this approach could be extended to other compounds or toxicity endpoints.
Playground lead levels in rubber, soil, sand, and mulch surfaces in Boston
TLDR
The finding of lower concentrations of lead in sand and mulch compared to rubber and soil should be used to inform playground design to optimize children’s health, alongside other chemical and safety considerations.
Incidence of malignant lymphoma in adolescents and young adults in the 58 counties of California with varying synthetic turf field density.
TLDR
There was no evidence at the county-level that synthetic turf fields are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma in adolescents and young adults in California, consistent with those of a prior study observing no association between individual-level exposures to turf fields and cancer incidence.
ERASSTRI - European Risk Assessment Study on Synthetic Turf Rubber Infill - Part 1: Analysis of infill samples.
TLDR
This Europe-wide risk assessment study addresses concerns that exposure to these substances might be harmful for human health by creating a profound database on concentrations of chemical substances in ELT-derived infill material, essential for a reliable risk assessment.
Testing of three sensor systems to predict water and nutrient contents of soccer field turfgrass clippings
Abstract Natural turfgrass sport fields have some advantages as compared to the synthetic sport fields. They are cheaper; can be repaired cost-effectively and provide water filtration, soil
Soccer Injuries in Children and Adolescents
TLDR
An updated review of the relevant literature as well as recommendations to promote the safe participation of children and adolescents in soccer are provided.
A low-cost prototype optical sensor to evaluate water, macro and micro elements of turfgrass clippings
Abstract A low-cost prototype optical sensor system was developed to determine water and nutrient concentrations of turfgrass clippings. The indoor sensor included three photodiodes and interference

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 28 REFERENCES
Human Health Risk Assessment of Synthetic Turf Fields Based Upon Investigation of Five Fields in Connecticut
TLDR
Outdoor and indoor synthetic turf fields are not associated with elevated adverse health risks, however, it would be prudent for building operators to provide adequate ventilation to prevent a buildup of rubber-related volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and SVOC at indoor fields.
Evaluation of health risks of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with rubber granulate
New research by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) indicates that the health risk of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with an infill of rubber granulate
Bioaccessibility and Risk of Exposure to Metals and SVOCs in Artificial Turf Field Fill Materials and Fibers.
TLDR
The study demonstrated that for the products and fields tested, exposure to infill and artificial turf was generally considered de minimus, with the possible exception of lead for some fields and materials.
Environmental and health impacts of artificial turf: a review.
TLDR
Preliminary life cycle assessment suggested that the environmental impacts of artificial turf fields were lower than equivalent grass fields, and areas that need further research to better understand and mitigate the potential negative environmental impacts are identified.
Environmental–sanitary risk analysis procedure applied to artificial turf sports fields
TLDR
A Tier 2 environmental–sanitary risk analysis on five artificial turf sports fields located in the city of Turin (Italy) with the aid of RISC4 software found the outdoor inhalation of dusts and gases was the main route of exposure for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances.
Artificial Turf Football Fields: Environmental and Mutagenicity Assessment
TLDR
An environmental analysis drawing a comparison between artificial turf football fields and urban areas relative to concentrations of particles and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found no significant differences.
Mutagenic Potential of Artificial Athletic Field Crumb Rubber at Increased Temperatures
TLDR
Results suggest that at the higher temperatures that can exist on artificial athletic field surfaces, the crumb rubber infill on these artificial athletic fields can become the source of a water soluble agent with mutagenic potential in bacteria.
Benzothiazole Toxicity Assessment in Support of Synthetic Turf Field Human Health Risk Assessment
TLDR
This assessment provides toxicity information for a human health risk assessment involving Benzothiazole (BZT) detected at five fields in Connecticut, and enables BZT to be quantitatively assessed in risk assessments involving synthetic turf fields.
Health Risk Assessment for Artificial Turf Playgrounds in School Athletic Facilities: Multi-route Exposure Estimation for Use Patterns
Hazardous chemicals can be released from artificial turf used in some school playgrounds. To distinguish between Health risk assessment (HRA) exposure scenarios for this study, the ratio of
Release of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals from Rubber Crumb in Synthetic Turf Fields: Preliminary Hazard Assessment for Athletes
Synthetic turf, made with an infill of rubber crumb from used tyres or virgin rubber, is now common in many sporting facilities. It is known that it contains compounds such as polycyclic aromatic
...
1
2
3
...