Synthesis of the Elements in Stars

  title={Synthesis of the Elements in Stars},
  author={E. Margaret Burbidge and Geoffrey R. Burbidge and William A. Fowler and Fred Sir Hoyle},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
Man inhabits a universe composed of a great variety of elements and their isotopes. In Table I,1 a count of the stable and radioactive elements and isotopes is listed. Ninety elements are found terrestrially and one more, technetium, is found in stars; only promethium has not been found in nature. 
Origin of Elements in the Solar System
The solar system is chemically and isotopically heterogeneous. The earth contains only 0.0003% of the mass of the solar system, but the abundance pattern of non-radiogenic isotopes for each
The Evolution of Elements and Isotopes
The basic building blocks of all minerals are the approximately 290 stable or long-lived isotopes of 84 elements. Yet, when the universe began and nuclear reactions ceased after about 15 minutes, the
The Evolution of Elements and Isotopes STARS : NATURE ’ S ISOTOPE FACTORIES
The isotopes found today in our solar system (Lodders et al. 2009) were formed in numerous cycles of nucleosynthesis over the ~10 billion years from the Big Bang to the formation of the solar system.
Formation of Elements in the Stars: To build all the elements requires that eight nuclear processes occur as the conditions become ripe.
Recent developments in nuclear physics and in both theoretical and observational astrophysics pertaining to an understanding of the formation of elements in the stars are reviewed. (C.H.)
Abundances of the elements in the solar system
A review of the abundances and condensation temperatures of the elements and their nuclides in the solar nebula and in chondritic meteorites. Abundances of the elements in some neighboring stars are
Stardust in the Laboratory
In his Perspective, Zinner reviews recent work on the laboratory analysis of stardust preserved in micrometeorites presented at the 58th Meteoritical Society Meeting.
Astronomy: Relic of the dawn of time
The discovery of such a star gives new clues to this early time, as it is shown that elements heavier than helium are synthesized in stars.
Abundance of Heavy Metals in the Halo Red Giant Star HD 122563
CURRENT theories of element synthesis1 suggest that different groups of elements present in the solar system and in normal stars result from different kinds of nuclear reactions in various stars of


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