Two synthetic routes to folic acid (FA)-functionalized diblock copolymers based on 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC] and either 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate [DMA] or 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate [DPA] were explored. The most successful route involved atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of MPC followed by the tertiary amine methacrylate using a 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (Fmoc)-protected ATRP initiator. Deprotection of the Fmoc groups produced terminal primary amine groups, which were conjugated with FA to produce two series of novel FA-functionalized biocompatible block copolymers. Nonfunctionalized MPC-DMA diblock copolymers have been previously shown to be effective synthetic vectors for DNA condensation; thus, these FA-functionalized MPC-DMA diblock copolymers appear to be well suited to gene therapy applications based on cell targeting strategies. In contrast, the FA-MPC-DPA copolymers are currently being evaluated as pH-responsive micellar vehicles for the delivery of highly hydrophobic anticancer drugs.