Native chemical ligation combined with desulfurization has become a powerful strategy for the chemical synthesis of proteins. Here we describe the use of a new thiol additive, methyl thioglycolate, to accomplish one-pot native chemical ligation and metal-free desulfurization for chemical protein synthesis. This one-pot strategy was used to prepare ubiquitin from two or three peptide segments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and racemic protein X-ray crystallography confirmed the correct folding of ubiquitin. Our results demonstrate that proteins synthesized chemically by streamlined 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) solid-phase peptide synthesis coupled with a one-pot ligation-desulfurization strategy can supply useful molecules with sufficient purity for crystallographic studies.