Post-translational modification of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub chains controls numerous biochemical events. Although it has been proven that all Ub-Ub linkages are formed in cells, studies have been limited for a long time to K48 and K63 chains as these can be generated biochemically. Access to the remaining (atypical) Ub-Ub chain types has been hampered by a lack of specific E2 enzymes. In this chapter we present a solution to this problem by using a native chemical ligation approach to obtain all other (i.e. K6, K11, K27, K29 and K33) diubiquitin chains.