Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives as antitumor growth and metastasis agents through inhibiting the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway.

The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling cascade is considered as one of the pivotal oncogenic pathways in most advanced cancers. Inhibition of the TGFβ signaling pathway by specific antagonists, neutralizing antibodies, or small molecules is considered as an effective strategy for the treatment of tumor growth and metastasis. Here we… (More)