Structures, Targets and Recent Approaches in Anti-Leishmanial Drug Discovery and Development
- Karin Seifert
- The open medicinal chemistry journal
A series of 37 dicationically substituted bis(phenoxymethyl)benzene bis(phenoxymethyl)naphthalene, and bis(benzyloxy)naphthalene analogues of pentamidine was prepared and evaluated for antiprotozoal activities and cytotoxicity in in vitro. 1,3-Bis(4-amidinophenoxymethyl)benzene (1) was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50)=2.1 nM). 1,3-Bis[4-(N-isopropylamidino)phenoxymethyl]benzene (2) was most active against Plasmodium falciparum (IC(50)=3.6 nM) and displayed a selectivity index more than 50 times greater than that of pentamidine. Several other compounds displayed lower antiplasmodial IC(50) values and higher selectivity indices relative to pentamidine. 1,4-Bis(4-amidinophenoxymethyl)benzene (14) was the most active against Leishmania donovani (IC(50)=1.3 microM). Compound 2 displayed the greatest activity against T. b. rhodesiense in vivo, curing three of four infected mice dosed intraperitoneally at 5 mg/kg x 4 days.