A cytosolic factor that inhibits KATP channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes by impairing Mg-nucleotide activation by SUR1.
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in neuron and neuroendocrine cells consist of a pore-forming Kir6.2 and regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1) subunits, which are regulated by ATP and ADP. SNARE protein syntaxin 1A (Syn-1A) is known to mediate exocytic fusion, and more recently, to also bind and modulate membrane-repolarizing voltage-gated K+ channels. Here we show that Syn-1A acts as an endogenous regulator of KATP channels capable of closing these channels when cytosolic ATP concentrations were lowered. Botulinum neurotoxin C1 cleavage of endogenous Syn-1A in insulinoma HIT-T15 cells resulted in the increase in KATP currents, which could be subsequently inhibited by recombinant Syn-1A. Whereas Syn-1A binds both nucleotide-binding folds (NBF-1 and NBF-2) of SUR1, the functional inhibition of KATP channels in rat islet beta-cells by Syn-1A seems to be mediated primarily by its interactions with NBF-1. These inhibitory actions of Syn-1A can be reversed by physiologic concentrations of ADP and by diazoxide. Syn-1A therefore acts to fine-tune the regulation of KATP channels during dynamic changes in cytosolic ATP and ADP concentrations. These actions of Syn-1A on KATP channels contribute to the role of Syn-1A in coordinating the sequence of ionic and exocytic events leading to secretion.