Synoptic formation of double tropopauses

10 Double tropopauses are ubiquitous in the midlatitude winter hemisphere and represent the 11 vertical stacking of two stable tropopause layers separated by a less stable layer. By an12 alyzing COSMIC GPS data, reanalysis, and eddy lifecycle simulations, we demonstrate 13 that they often occur during Rossby wave breaking and act to increase the… CONTINUE READING