Synergistic effects of temperature extremes, hypoxia, and increases in CO2 on marine animals: From Earth history to global change

@article{Prtner2005SynergisticEO,
  title={Synergistic effects of temperature extremes, hypoxia, and increases in CO2 on marine animals: From Earth history to global change},
  author={Hans-O. P{\"o}rtner and Martina Langenbuch and Basile Michaelidis},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research},
  year={2005},
  volume={110}
}
Currently rising CO2 levels in atmosphere and marine surface waters as well as projected scenarios of CO2 disposal in the ocean emphasize that CO2 sensitivities need to be investigated in aquatic organisms, especially the most sensitive, animals. Moreover, to understand causes and effects, we need to identify the physiological processes sensitive to CO2 in animals. While the number of animals acutely sensitive to moderate CO2 increments may be small, long-term effects may have already begun in… Expand
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