Enhanced antitumor activity of a combination treatment with a mouse/human chimeric anti-MK-1 antibody and lymphokine-activated killer cells in vitro and in a severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) regulates immune responses by inducing proliferation and differentiation of T-cells into cytotoxic cells, inducing lymphokine activated killer activity and enhancing antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Lym-1, a monoclonal antibody, recognizes a membrane antigen present on the surface of B-lymphoma cells and can be used for ADCC. We therefore used Raji (human Burkitt lymphoma) cells to study the efficacy of combination therapy with IL-2, lymphokine activated killer activity, and Lym-1. In vitro ADCC assays using Lym-1 showed that preincubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with IL-2 had a synergistic antitumor effect. The maximum synergism was achieved when peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated with IL-2 for 3 days as compared to 1 or 2 days, with the optimal concentration of IL-2 being 1000 units/ml. This effect was specific for Lym-1 as demonstrated by experiments using an irrelevant (antimelanoma) monoclonal antibody or an irrelevant target cell (A375). The ADCC was blocked by an anti-Fe receptor antibody (3G8). In vivo experiments performed by growing Raji tumors in nude mice also demonstrated the increase in ADCC and the synergism between IL-2 and Lym-1 in terms of decreased tumor size and growth. The mechanism of this synergy is probably from activation of cells mediating ADCC. This raises the possibility that treatment of patients with low doses of IL-2 in combination with Lym-1 may enhance immune responses and thereby antitumor activity.