Loss Functions for Discriminative Training of Energy-Based Models
We describe a novel method for real-time, simultaneous multi-view face detection and facial pose estimation. The method employs a convolu-tional network to map face images to points on a manifold, parametrized by pose, and non-face images to points far from that manifold. This network is trained by optimizing a loss function of three variables: image , pose, and face/non-face label. We test the resulting system, in a single configuration, on three standard data sets – one for frontal pose, one for rotated faces, and one for profiles – and find that its performance on each set is comparable to previous multi-view face detectors that can only handle one form of pose variation. We also show experimentally that the system's accuracy on both face detection and pose estimation is improved by training for the two tasks together.