Synergistic Activation of Estrogen Receptor with Combinations of Environmental Chemicals

@article{Arnold1996SynergisticAO,
  title={Synergistic Activation of Estrogen Receptor with Combinations of Environmental Chemicals},
  author={Steven F. Arnold and Diane M. Klotz and Bridgette M. Collins and Peter M. Vonier and Louis J. Guillette and J A McLachlan},
  journal={Science},
  year={1996},
  volume={272},
  pages={1489 - 1492}
}
Certain chemicals in the environment are estrogenic. The low potencies of these compounds, when studied singly, suggest that they may have little effect on biological systems. The estrogenic potencies of combinations of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen system (YES) containing human estrogen receptor (hER). Combinations of two weak environmental estrogens, such as dieldrin, endosulfan, or toxaphene, were 1000 times as potent in hER-mediated transactivation as any chemical… 
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