Synergism of coupled subsarcolemmal Ca2+ clocks and sarcolemmal voltage clocks confers robust and flexible pacemaker function in a novel pacemaker cell model.

@article{Maltsev2009SynergismOC,
  title={Synergism of coupled subsarcolemmal Ca2+ clocks and sarcolemmal voltage clocks confers robust and flexible pacemaker function in a novel pacemaker cell model.},
  author={Victor A. Maltsev and Edward G. Lakatta},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={296 3},
  pages={H594-615}
}
Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that sinoatrial node cells (SANC) generate spontaneous, rhythmic, local subsarcolemmal Ca(2+) releases (Ca(2+) clock), which occur during late diastolic depolarization (DD) and interact with the classic sarcolemmal voltage oscillator (membrane clock) by activating Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger current (I(NCX)). This and other interactions between clocks, however, are not captured by existing essentially membrane-delimited cardiac pacemaker cell numerical… CONTINUE READING
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