Syncope is a common condition that can be both disabling and expensive to treat. Although investigative modalities are sometimes required, a diagnosis can often be made with a good history and physical exam. Recent reports have identified specific historic features that are more suggestive of cardiac syncope as compared with vasovagal syncope and seizures. Advances in ambulatory electrocardiography (in particular the implantable loop recorder) have proven invaluable in both difficult-to-diagnose syncope, and in advancing our knowledge of its mechanisms. When clear dysrhythmias are manifest, appropriate therapies are self-evident. However, recurrent vasovagal syncope continues to be a condition that can be difficult to treat. Fortunately, there are well-conducted trials of both pharmacologic therapies (b-blockers, alpha agonists, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and nonpharmacologic treatments (orthostatic physical training and dual-chamber pacemakers) that should provide more guidance in the near future.