Synchronous aggregated pseudo-copulation of the sea star Archaster angulatus Müller & Troschel, 1842 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) and its reproductive cycle in south-western Australia

@article{Keesing2011SynchronousAP,
  title={Synchronous aggregated pseudo-copulation of the sea star Archaster angulatus M{\"u}ller \& Troschel, 1842 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) and its reproductive cycle in south-western Australia},
  author={John K. Keesing and Fiona Graham and Tennille R. Irvine and Ryan Crossing},
  journal={Marine Biology},
  year={2011},
  volume={158},
  pages={1163-1173}
}
Mass individual pairing or pseudo-copulation of the sea star Archaster angulatus was observed in November and December 2009, suggesting a late-spring/summer spawning period for this species on the west coast of Australia. Detailed measurements were made on the second of these occasions. Density of sea stars was 1.11 per m2 and 68.5% were in mating pairs. Copulating pairs were mostly male on female, occasionally male on male. There was no difference in size between males and females in mating… 
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