Synaptic vesicle pools

  title={Synaptic vesicle pools},
  author={Silvio O. Rizzoli and William J. Betz},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
Communication between cells reaches its highest degree of specialization at chemical synapses. Some synapses talk in a 'whisper'; others 'shout'. The 'louder' the synapse, the more synaptic vesicles are needed to maintain effective transmission, ranging from a few hundred (whisperers) to nearly a million (shouters). These vesicles reside in different 'pools', which have been given a bewildering array of names. In this review, we focus on five tissue preparations in which synaptic vesicle pools… 
Synaptic vesicle pools and dynamics.
Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter at chemical synapses, thus initiating the flow of information in neural networks. To achieve this, vesicles undergo a dynamic cycle of fusion and retrieval
Synaptic Vesicle Pools: An Update
Advances in the vesicle pool field are discussed, focusing on the behavior of different pools under both strong stimulation and physiological activity, with several new findings enhancing the three-pool model.
The reserve pool of synaptic vesicles acts as a buffer for proteins involved in synaptic vesicle recycling
It is concluded that the reserve vesicles support neurotransmission indirectly, ensuring that soluble recycling proteins are delivered upon demand during synaptic activity.
Taking a Back Seat: Synaptic Vesicle Clustering in Presynaptic Terminals
A model in which synapsins together with other synaptic proteins, a large proportion of which is involved in SV recycling, form a dynamic proteinaceous “matrix” which limits the mobility of SVs is proposed.
A small pool of vesicles maintains synaptic activity in vivo
It is concluded that synapses do not require numerous reserve vesicles to sustain neurotransmitter release and thus may use them for other purposes, examined in the accompanying paper.
Revisiting synaptic vesicle pool localization in the Drosophila neuromuscular junction
The recycling and reserve pools are found to be thoroughly intermixed at the EM level, indicating that spatial location is irrelevant for the functional properties of the vesicle.
A resting pool of vesicles is responsible for spontaneous vesicle fusion at the synapse
This work created a genetically encoded probe, biosyn, which consists of a biotinylated VAMP2 expressed at presynaptic terminals that exploited the high-affinity interaction between streptavidin and biotin to label biosyn with fluorescent strePTavidin during vesicle fusion.
Structural and Functional Maturation of Active Zones in Large Synapses
The morphological and functional changes occurring during postnatal maturation are reviewed, noting particular similarities and differences between these two large synapses in the mammalian auditory pathway of the brain stem.


Distinct pools of synaptic vesicles in neurotransmitter release
It is shown that clusters of vesicles at synaptic release sites are composed of two pools, a distal pool containing synapsin and a proximal pool devoid of synAPSin and located adjacent to the presynaptic membrane.
The Structural Organization of the Readily Releasable Pool of Synaptic Vesicles
The defining morphological feature of chemical synapses is the vesicle cluster in the presynaptic nerve terminal. It has generally been assumed that vesicles closest to release sites are recruited
"Kiss and run" exocytosis at hippocampal synapses.
  • C. Stevens, J. Williams
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
A "kiss and run" mode of exocytosis is revealed in which synaptic vesicles release glutamate normally but do not permit dye to enter or escape from the vesicle.
Development of Vesicle Pools during Maturation of Hippocampal Synapses
This analysis suggests that presynaptic boutons go through three distinct functional states to mature, and exposes a mechanism that ensures functionally effective allocation of a limited number of vesicles in a CNS synapse.
Morphological correlates of functionally defined synaptic vesicle populations
By combining photoconversion of FM1-43-stained vesicles and electron microscopy of hippocampal synapses, we find evidence that the population of morphologically docked synaptic vesicles corresponds
Three modes of synaptic vesicular recycling revealed by single-vesicle imaging
It is shown that an exocytic event can terminate with three modes of vesicle retrieval: a fast ‘kiss-and-run’ mode that has a selective fusion pore; a slow (8–21 s) ‘compensatory” mode; and a ‘stranded’ modes of recycling, in which a vesicles is left on the cell surface until a nerve impulse triggers its retrieval.