Synaptic vesicle exocytosis captured by quick freezing and correlated with quantal transmitter release

@article{Heuser1979SynapticVE,
  title={Synaptic vesicle exocytosis captured by quick freezing and correlated with quantal transmitter release},
  author={John E. Heuser and Thomas S. Reese and Mike J. Dennis and Yih-Min Jan and Lawrence Jan and Louise Evans},
  journal={The Journal of Cell Biology},
  year={1979},
  volume={81},
  pages={275 - 300}
}
We describe the design and operation of a machine that freezes biological tissues by contact with a cold metal block, which incorporates a timing circuit that stimulates frog neuromuscular junctions in the last few milliseconds before thay are frozen. We show freeze-fracture replicas of nerve terminals frozen during transmitter discharge, which display synpatic vesicles caught in the act of exocytosis. We use 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to increase the number of transmitter quanta discharged with… CONTINUE READING

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