Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

  title={Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia},
  author={J. Paul Bolam and Jason J. Hanley and Paul Anthony Booth and Mark D. Bevan},
  journal={Journal of Anatomy},
The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context‐dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided… 

The basal ganglia: a neural network with more than motor function.

  • A. Afifi
  • Biology, Psychology
    Seminars in pediatric neurology
  • 2003

The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

The question of whether clumsiness may be, at least in part, attributed to dysfunction of the basal ganglia is discussed in the context of the differential, complementary, or interactive roles of theBasal ganglia and the cerebellum in the development of motor control.

The Basal Ganglia

The basal ganglia: anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology.

Functional neurochemistry of the basal ganglia.

The basal ganglia: motor and cognitive relationships in a clinical neurobehavioral context

Some of the new anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex are reviewed and applied in clinical applications to obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s syndrome, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as examples of how compromise at different points in the system may yield similar but different clinical results.

Striatal Function Explored Through a Biophysical Model of a Medium Spiny Neuron

This thesis develops a biophysically inspired, minimal current model of a striatal medium spiny neuron which utilises transitions between two membrane potential states, both below firing threshold, to filter excitatory input and is capable of simulating the basic functionality required for behaviour selection in a manner which has greater biological plausibility than previously published models.

Clinical Motor and Cognitive Neurobehavioral Relationships in the Basal Ganglia

Some of the new anatomical, physiological and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex are reviewed.

Limbic-Basal Ganglia Circuits Parallel and Integrative Aspects

It is clear that the ‘limbic’, ventral striatum contributes to an extended basal ganglia circuitry that involves the return projections to the prefrontal cortex via various thalamic nuclei, projection to the ventral mesencephalon, potentially influencing the monoaminergic ascending projection systems.



Afferent and efferent relationships of the basal ganglia.

This suggestion is strengthened by evidence that the 'limbic striatum' seems enabled by its striatonigral efferents to modulate not only the source of its own dopamine innervation but also that of a large additional striatal region.

Anatomical Relationships Between the Prefrontal Cortex and the Basal Ganglia in the Rat

The results of more recent studies and a reinterpretation of the older data led to the conclusion that, instead of “funneling,” the basic principle of the cortico-basal ganglia relationships is a parallel organization of connections from the (pre)frontal cortex through the basal ganglia and the thalamus back to the ( pre) frontal cortex.

The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders

Multiple output channels in the basal ganglia.

Retrograde transneuronal transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 was used to examine the organization of connections in the cebus monkey between an output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus, and three cortical areas: the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor ara, and the ventral premotor area.

Microcircuitry of the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia.

Neostriatal cell subtypes and their functional roles