Synaptic modulation by astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent glutamate release

  title={Synaptic modulation by astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent glutamate release},
  author={Mirko Santello and Andrea Volterra},
Gliotransmission and the tripartite synapse.
By releasing gliotransmitters in millisecond time scale with a specific vesicular apparatus, astrocytes can integrate and process synaptic information and control or modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity.
Neurotransmitters and Integration in Neuronal-Astroglial Networks
Two major neural cell types, glia, astrocytes in particular, and neurones can release chemical transmitters that act as soluble signalling compounds for intercellular communication. Exocytosis, a
It is found that the PBD develops over the first three postnatal weeks and that it is blocked when astrocyte metabolism is compromised, suggesting thatAstrocytes are critically involved in mediating a negative feedback on synaptic transmission after a burst of synaptic activity.
Calcium Signaling and Gliotransmission in Normal vs. Reactive Astrocytes
Evidence questioning Ca2+-dependent gliotransmitter release from astrocytes in healthy brain tissue is examined, followed by a close examination of recent work suggesting that Ca2-dependentgliotransmitters release occurs as an early event in the development of neurological disorders and neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
CXCR4-mediated glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes
New tools for investigating astrocyte-to-neuron communication
Some limitations of conventional methodologies are discussed and the interest of novel tools and approaches for studying gliotransmission are highlighted and emerging perspectives on the complexity of astrocyte Ca2+ signaling revealed by GECIs are discussed.
Astrocytes—The Ultimate Effectors of Long-Range Neuromodulatory Networks?
The hypothesis that astrocytes extend and amplify neuromodulatory influences on neuronal networks via alterations in calcium dynamics, the release of gliotransmitters, and potassium homeostasis is explored.


Astrocytes Potentiate Transmitter Release at Single Hippocampal Synapses
Results indicate that astrocytes are actively involved in the transfer and storage of synaptic information and mGluR-mediated but N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor–independent plasticity is observed.
Glutamate Released from Glial Cells Synchronizes Neuronal Activity in the Hippocampus
It is demonstrated in hippocampal slices of 2- to 5-week-old rats that glutamate released from glial cells generates slow transient currents (STCs) mediated by the activation of NMDA receptors in pyramidal cells, indicating a nonsynaptic origin of the source of glutamate.
Prostaglandins stimulate calcium-dependent glutamate release in astrocytes
It is shown that coactivation of the AMPA/kainate and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) on astrocytes stimulates these cells to release glutamate through a Ca2+-dependent process mediated by prostaglandins, revealing a new pathway of regulated transmitter release from astroCytes and outlining the existence of an integrated glutamatergic cross-talk between neurons and astroicytes in situ.
Properties of Synaptically Evoked Astrocyte Calcium Signal Reveal Synaptic Information Processing by Astrocytes
Because astrocytes discriminate and integrate synaptic information, it is proposed that they can be considered as cellular elements involved in the information processing by the nervous system.
GFAP‐positive hippocampal astrocytes in situ respond to glutamatergic neuroligands with increases in [Ca2+]i
It is becoming increasingly clear that astrocytes play very dynamic and interactive roles that are important for the normal functioning of the central nervous system. In culture, astrocytes express
Hippocampal Astrocytes In Situ Respond to Glutamate Released from Synaptic Terminals
The results suggest that hippocampal astrocytes in situ are able to respond to the neuronal release of the neurotransmitter glutamate with increases in [Ca2+]i, and suggest that higher levels of neuronal activity result in stimulation of both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors on the astroCytes.
Astrocyte control of synaptic transmission and neurovascular coupling.
The application of subcellular imaging of Ca2+ signaling to astrocytes now provides functional data to support this structural notion that both excitatory and inhibitory signals provided by the same glial cell act in concert to regulate neuronal function.
Synaptically Released Acetylcholine Evokes Ca2+Elevations in Astrocytes in Hippocampal Slices
The results show the existence of cholinergic neuron–astrocyte signaling and suggest that astrocytes are a target of axonal inputs from different brain areas.