Synapse‐to‐synapse variation in mean synaptic vesicle size and its relationship with synaptic morphology and function

@article{Qu2009SynapsetosynapseVI,
  title={Synapse‐to‐synapse variation in mean synaptic vesicle size and its relationship with synaptic morphology and function},
  author={Lei Qu and Yulia Akbergenova and Yunming Hu and Thomas Schikorski},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Neurology},
  year={2009},
  volume={514}
}
Synaptic vesicle (SV) size is one parameter that controls the amount of neurotransmitter released from individual SVs and, therefore, is fundamental to our understanding of synaptic function. The recently discovered variability of mean SV size among excitatory hippocampal synapses—if actively regulated—is a potential mechanism for the regulation of transmitter release. Here, we investigated which parameters influence mean SV size. First, we revealed that synapse‐to‐synapse variability of SV… 
A new efficient method for synaptic vesicle quantification reveals differences between medial prefrontal cortex perforated and nonperforated synapses
TLDR
A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of cortical excitatory synapses by mean of a new, efficient method, as an alternative to three‐dimensional (3D) reconstruction, confirmed the large size of mPFC PSs and a linear correlation between presynaptic features of typical hippocampal synapses.
Ultrastructure of synapses in the mammalian brain.
The morphology and molecular composition of synapses provide the structural basis for synaptic function. This article reviews the electron microscopy of excitatory synapses on dendritic spines, using
Characterization of single vesicle recycling kinetics and other presynaptic properties at small central terminals
TLDR
It is suggested that vesicle recycling mechanisms are important target substrates in Alzheimer’s disease providing potential new avenues for development of therapeutic approaches.
Heterogeneity of glutamatergic synapses: cellular mechanisms and network consequences.
TLDR
The range of structural building blocks that are used to vary the basic functional repertoire of excitatory synaptic contacts are defined and discussed and sources and general mechanisms of synapse heterogeneity are discussed.
Vesicular release probability sets the strength of individual Schaffer collateral synapses
TLDR
Analyzing the variability of quantal parameters, it is concluded that the vesicular release probability rather than the number of readily releasable vesicles or their transmitter content determines the potency of individual boutons.
Synaptic co-transmission of acetylcholine and GABA regulates hippocampal states
TLDR
It is demonstrated that mouse hippocampal cholinergic terminals invariably establish synapses and their vesicles dock at synapses only, and that these synapses do not co-release but co-transmit GABA and acetylcholine via different vesicle, whose release is triggered by distinct calcium channels.
Long-Term Temporal Dynamics of Synaptic Vesicles
TLDR
It is demonstrated here, using live-cell antibody-tagging in rat hippocampal cultures, that only young synaptic vesicles are releasing neurotransmitter, and that they become more reluctant to release as they age, and several timing parameters for key events in the life of synaptic vESicles are provided, which can serve as a framework towards a quantitative model of theaptic vesicle life cycle.
Structure parameters of synaptic vesicles quantified by small-angle x-ray scattering.
Parsing Out the Variability of Transmission at Central Synapses Using Optical Quantal Analysis
TLDR
A combination of computational approaches with cellular electrophysiology, two-photon uncaging of MNI-Glutamate and imaging at single synapses, and an expectation-maximization algorithm that extracts the quantal parameters n and p from single-synapse iGluSnFR-mediated transients are employed.
Changes in the Interaction between Astrocyte Processes and Synaptic Terminals in the Generation of Epileptiform Activity
TLDR
Comparing the structural organization of excitatory synaptic contacts in intraocular septal transplants shows evidence that presynaptic astrocyte processes were the first to react to electrical stimulation and initiated the development of epileptiform activity.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Quantal Size and Variation Determined by Vesicle Size in Normal and Mutant Drosophila Glutamatergic Synapses
TLDR
Functional differences in synaptic strength among glutamatergic neurons of Drosophila result in part from intrinsic differences in vesicle size, which indicates that glutamate is regulated homeostatically to the same intravesicular concentration in all cases.
Presynaptic Regulation of Quantal Size by the Vesicular Glutamate Transporter VGLUT1
TLDR
It is underscore that vesicular transporter expression is used endogenously to directly regulate the extent of glutamate release, providing a concise presynaptic mechanism for controlling the quantal efficacy of excitatory transmission during synaptic refinement and plasticity.
Assessing accurate sizes of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals
Increased Expression of the Drosophila Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Leads to Excess Glutamate Release and a Compensatory Decrease in Quantal Content
TLDR
These results demonstrate that expression of DVGLUT determines the size and glutamate content of synaptic vesicles and homeostatic mechanisms exist to attenuate the excitatory effects of excess glutamate release.
Quantitative Ultrastructural Analysis of Hippocampal Excitatory Synapses
TLDR
The distribution of active zone areas can account for the distribution of synaptic release probabilities and that each active zone constitutes a release site as identified in the standard quantal theory attributable to Katz (1969).
Statistical methods for assessing the dimensions of synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals
The Neurotransmitter Cycle and Quantal Size
Three-Dimensional Structure and Composition of CA3→CA1 Axons in Rat Hippocampal Slices: Implications for Presynaptic Connectivity and Compartmentalization
Physiological studies of CA3→CA1 synaptic transmission and plasticity have revealed both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Understanding the extent to which individual presynaptic axonal boutons could
...
...