Synaesthesia: Prevalence and Familiality

  title={Synaesthesia: Prevalence and Familiality},
  author={Simon Baron-Cohen and Lucy Burt and Fiona Smith-Laittan and John Harrison and Patrick F. Bolton},
  pages={1073 - 1079}
Synaesthesia is a condition in which a mixing of the senses occurs; for example, sounds trigger the experience of colour. Previous reports suggest this may be familial, but no systematic studies exist. In addition, there are no reliable prevalence or sex-ratio figures for the condition, which is essential for establishing if the reported sex ratio (female bias) is reliable, and if this implicates a sex-linked genetic mechanism. Two independent population studies were conducted in the city of… 
Is synaesthesia a dominantly female trait?
A large-scale prevalence study is presented which informs ideas on whether the condition is more prevalent in men or women, and re-analyse previous reports of very large female biases to show again that they likely arose from self-referral or other methodological issues.
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Synaesthesia is a hereditary, neurological condition in which common stimuli trigger unexpected secondary sensations. For example, reading letters may result in the visualisation of colour, a variant
Synaesthesia: The Prevalence of Atypical Cross-Modal Experiences
The first test of synaesthesia prevalence with sampling that does not rely on self-referral, and which uses objective tests to establish genuineness is presented, and it is suggested that female biases reported earlier likely arose from (or were exaggerated by) sex differences in self-disclosure.
Is synaesthesia an X linked trait with lethality in males ?
In previous research the inheritance patterns of synaesthesia (eg experiencing colours from graphemes) has been studied and it was concluded that synaesthesia is most likely to be the outcome of a
Synesthesia in twins: Incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors
The first comparative twin study of CSS is conducted and it is found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and the results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia.
Is Synaesthesia an X-Linked Dominant Trait with Lethality in Males?
The results show a female – male bias and are broadly consistent with an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance and discuss how the genotype may give rise to the phenotype in terms of changes in synaptogenesis or plasticity extending into childhood, to be subsequently shaped by the environment.
Familial patterns and the origins of individual differences in synaesthesia
The findings strongly indicate that various types of synaesthesia are fundamentally related at the genetic level, but that the explicit associations and the individual differences between synaesthetes are influenced by other factors.
In the phenomenon of synaesthesia, adequate stimuli in one sensory modality are accompanied by perceptions in one to four others. Even if descriptions of synaesthesia are well known in the scientific
A systematic , large-scale study of synaesthesia : implications for the role of early experience in lexical-colour associations
For individuals with synaesthesia, stimuli in one sensory modality elicit anomalous experiences in another modality. For example, the sound of a particular piano note may be ‘seen’ as a unique
A systematic, large-scale study of synaesthesia: implications for the role of early experience in lexical-colour associations
It is suggested that the development of lexical-colour synaesthesia in many cases incorporates early learning experiences common to all individuals, and that the learning of such sequences during an early critical period determines the particular pattern of lexicals-colour links and that this pattern then generalises to other words.


Coloured Speech Perception: Is Synaesthesia what Happens when Modularity Breaks Down?
A study is presented in which nine subjects were tested who also reported having coloured hearing and confirmed the genuineness of these nine cases of chromatic–lexical synaesthesia, with some consistency found in the colours evoked by hearing specific letters, suggesting the condition has a neurological basis.
The physiology of coloured hearing. A PET activation study of colour-word synaesthesia.
The results suggest that colour-word synaesthesia may result from the activity of brain areas concerned with language and visual feature integration, as conscious visual experience appears to occur without activation of the primary visual cortex.
Hearing Words and Seeing Colours: An Experimental Investigation of a Case of Synaesthesia
A case of ‘chromatic–lexical’ (colour–word) synaesthesia is described, and its genuineness confirmed using the criterion of stable cross-modality imagery across time using an unusual organisation of modalities in the brain.
XLMR genes: update 1994.
This work provides a comprehensive list of all known forms of X-linked mental retardation, subdivided into 5 categories (syndromes, dominant disorders, metabolic disorders, neuromuscular disorders, and nonspecificmental retardation).
Modularity of mind
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