Up to 10% of women may suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The clinical symptoms may vary, so the biochemical profile and ultrasonography are used to predict an accurate diagnosis. Many studies have indicated that a relationship may exist between hyperinsulineamia and hyperandrogenism but the exact pathogenesis remains obscure. PCOS is treated by a combination of surgery or pharmacological management. Treatment is not always successful therefore women in these cases require support and care from nursing staff to help overcome the disappointment of treatment failure. To support women with PCOS, nurses need to be knowledgeable about the condition and its clinical manifestations and available treatment options. This article aims to examine the current aetiology, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options available to women with a diagnosis of PCOS.