Sympatric Speciation in a Bacterial Endosymbiont Results in Two Genomes with the Functionality of One

@article{Leuven2014SympatricSI,
  title={Sympatric Speciation in a Bacterial Endosymbiont Results in Two Genomes with the Functionality of One},
  author={James T. Van Leuven and Russell C Meister and Chris Simon and John P. McCutcheon},
  journal={Cell},
  year={2014},
  volume={158},
  pages={1270-1280}
}

Figures and Tables from this paper

Multiple origins of interdependent endosymbiotic complexes in a genus of cicadas
TLDR
It is shown that an endosymbiont in some cicadas has repeatedly and independently fractured into complexes of distinct genomic and cellular lineages present in the same host.
Evolution from Free-Living Bacteria to Endosymbionts of Insects: Genomic Changes and the Importance of the Chaperonin GroEL.
TLDR
This chapter focuses on the genome changes suffered by endosymbionts, and on the mutational robustness mechanisms, including the moonlighting chaperone GroEL that could explain their long prevalence from an evolutionary perspective by comparing them with free-living bacteria.
Unity Makes Strength: A Review on Mutualistic Symbiosis in Representative Insect Clades
TLDR
This review presents several models of insect–bacteria symbioses that allow for the detangling of most known features of this distinctive way of living, using a combination of very diverse screening approaches, including molecular, microscopic, and genomic techniques.
Genome expansion via lineage splitting and genome reduction in the cicada endosymbiont Hodgkinia
Comparative genomics from mitochondria, plastids, and mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria has shown that the stable establishment of a bacterium in a host cell results in genome reduction. Although
Changes in Endosymbiont Complexity Drive Host-Level Compensatory Adaptations in Cicadas
TLDR
Cicadas dramatically increase the titer of Hodgkinia cells passed to each egg in response to lineage fragmentation, and it is hypothesized that this increase in bacterial cell count is one of the major costs associated with endosymbiont fragmentation.
Intrahost Genetic Diversity of Bacterial Symbionts Exhibits Evidence of Mixed Infections and Recombinant Haplotypes
TLDR
The results strongly suggest that these variant haplotypes originated through recombination events, potentially during prior mixed infections or in the external environment, rather than as novel mutations within symbiont populations.
The Life of an Insect Endosymbiont from the Cradle to the Grave
Repeated replacement of an intrabacterial symbiont in the tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis
TLDR
The results show that highly integrated and interdependent symbiotic systems can experience symbiont replacement and suggest that similar dynamics could have occurred in building the mosaic metabolic pathways seen in mitochondria and plastids.
Novel Trypanosomatid-Bacterium Association: Evolution of Endosymbiosis in Action
TLDR
A novel symbiotic association between a kinetoplastid protist, Novymonas esmeraldas gen. nov., sp.nov.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 98 REFERENCES
Convergent evolution of metabolic roles in bacterial co-symbionts of insects
TLDR
It is reported that, despite at least 200 million years of divergence, the two Sulcia genomes have nearly identical gene content and gene order, and that despite being phylogenetically distant and drastically different in genome size and architecture, Hodgkinia and Baumannia have converged on gene sets conferring similar capabilities for essential amino acid biosynthesis.
Parallel genomic evolution and metabolic interdependence in an ancient symbiosis
TLDR
Using recently developed sequencing technologies, it is shown that Sulcia muelleri, a member of the Bacteroidetes, underwent similar genomic changes during coevolution with its sap-feeding insect host and the coresident symbiont Baumannia cicadellinicola (Gammaproteobacteria).
Metabolic Complementarity and Genomics of the Dual Bacterial Symbiosis of Sharpshooters
TLDR
This study, which to the authors' knowledge is the first genomic analysis of an obligate symbiosis involving multiple partners, suggests striking complementarity in the biosynthetic capabilities of the two symbionts: B. cicadellinicola and S. muelleri, both isolated from H. coagulata.
Symbiosis as an adaptive process and source of phenotypic complexity
  • N. Moran
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2007
TLDR
In some cases, animal genomes may have acquired genes from symbionts, mirroring the gene uptake from mitochondrial and plastid genomes, resulting in coadaptation among several phylogenetically distant genomes.
Functional Convergence in Reduced Genomes of Bacterial Symbionts Spanning 200 My of Evolution
TLDR
A dual symbiotic system consisting of Sulcia and a novel species of Betaproteobacteria, Candidatus Zinderia insecticola, both living in the spittlebug Clastoptera arizonana, demonstrates the critical role that bacterial symbionts play in the host insect’s biology and reveals one outcome following the loss of a critical metabolic activity through genome reduction.
Genome reduction and co-evolution between the primary and secondary bacterial symbionts of psyllids.
TLDR
Although the Carsonella genomes are generally conserved in size, structure, and GC content and exhibit genome-wide signatures of purifying selection, it is found that gene loss has remained active since the divergence of the host species and had a particularly large impact on the amino acid biosynthesis pathways that define the symbiotic role of Cars onella.
Mealybugs nested endosymbiosis: going into the ‘matryoshka’ system in Planococcus citri in depth
TLDR
Using comparative genomics, it is confirmed that both genomes have undergone a reductive evolution, although with some unusual genomic features as a consequence of coevolving in an exceptional compartmentalized organization.
Mealybug β-proteobacterial endosymbionts contain γ-proteobacterial symbionts
TLDR
It is shown that mealybug host cells do indeed harbour both β- and γ-subdivision Proteobacteria, but they are not co-inhabitants of the spheres, and this is the first report, to the authors' knowledge, of an intracellular symbiosis involving two species of bacteria.
...
...