Symmetry-protected skyrmions in three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases

@article{Chen2015SymmetryprotectedSI,
  title={Symmetry-protected skyrmions in three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases},
  author={Guanjun Chen and Tiantian Li and Yun-bo Zhang},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2015},
  volume={91},
  pages={053624}
}
We present a variational study of pseudo-spin-$1/2$ Bose gases in a harmonic trap with weak three-dimensional (3D) spin-orbit coupling of $\mathbf{\ensuremath{\sigma}}\ifmmode\cdot\else\textperiodcentered\fi{}\mathbf{p}$ type. This spin-orbit coupling mixes states with different parities, which inspires us to approximate the single-particle state with the eigenstates of the total angular momentum, i.e., superposition of harmonic $s$-wave and $p$-wave states. As the time-reversal symmetry is… 
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