Symmetry of iteration graphs

  title={Symmetry of iteration graphs},
  author={Walter Carlip and Martina Mincheva},
  journal={Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal},
We examine iteration graphs of the squaring function on the rings ℤ/nℤ when n = 2kp, for p a Fermat prime. We describe several invariants associated to these graphs and use them to prove that the graphs are not symmetric when k = 3 and when k ⩾ 5 and are symmetric when k = 4. 
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