# Symmetry and emergence

@article{Witten2018SymmetryAE, title={Symmetry and emergence}, author={Edward Witten}, journal={Nature Physics}, year={2018}, volume={14}, pages={116-119} }

In a modern understanding of particle physics, global symmetries are approximate and gauge symmetries may be emergent. This view, which has echoes in condensed-matter physics, is supported by a variety of arguments from experiment and theory.

## 69 Citations

### Emergent gauge symmetries: making symmetry as well as breaking it

- PhysicsPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A
- 2021

Recent thinking on possible emergent gauge symmetries in particle physics is discussed, commenting also on Higgs phenomena and the vacuum energy or cosmological constant puzzle inEmergent gauge systems.

### Cosmic inflation from broken conformal symmetry

- PhysicsCommunications in Theoretical Physics
- 2022

A period of rapidly accelerating expansion is expected in the early Universe implemented by a scalar field slowly rolling down along an asymptotically flat potential preferred by the current data. In…

### Introduction to Conformal Field Theories

- MathematicsSpringer Theses
- 2019

In this chapter we briefly review the construction of euclidean Conformal Field Theories in general \(d>2\) and their main properties. Our approach follows the standard Refs. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. We…

### Constraints on global symmetry breaking in quantum gravity from cosmic birefringence measurements

- PhysicsPhysics Letters B
- 2021

### Symmetries in Quantum Field Theory and Quantum Gravity

- PhysicsCommunications in Mathematical Physics
- 2021

In this paper we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to refine and then establish a set of old conjectures about symmetries in quantum gravity. We first show that any global symmetry, discrete or…

### Neutrino Masses from the Point of View of Economy and Simplicity

- PhysicsPhysics of Particles and Nuclei
- 2019

In the framework of such basic principles as local gauge invariance, unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the Standard Model the most…

### Neutrinos: Majorana or Dirac?

- PhysicsUniverse
- 2020

Are neutrinos with definite masses Majorana or Dirac particles? This is one of the most fundamental problems of modern neutrino physics. The solution to this problem could be crucial for…

### Dark energy and dark matter in emergent gravity

- PhysicsJournal of the Korean Physical Society
- 2022

Emergent gravity can be applied to a large N matrix model by considering the vacuum of a noncommutative (NC) Coulomb branch that satisfies the Heisenberg algebra. Due to the fact that IR fluctuations…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES

### Unity of All Elementary Particle Forces

- Physics
- 1974

Strong, electromagnetic, and weak forces are conjectured to arise from a single fundamental interaction based on the gauge group SU(5).

### A new light boson

- Physics
- 1978

It is pointed out that a global U(1) symmetry, that has been introduced in order to preserve the parity and time-reversal invariance of strong interactions despite the effects of instantons, would…

### CP Conservation in the Presence of Pseudoparticles

- Physics
- 1977

We give an explanation of the $\mathrm{CP}$ conservation of strong interactions which includes the effects of pseudoparticles. We find it is a natural result for any theory where at least one flavor…

### Symmetry Breaking Through Bell-Jackiw Anomalies

- Physics
- 1976

In models of fermions coupled to gauge fields certain current-conservation laws are violated by Bell-Jackiw anomalies. In perturbation theory the total charge corresponding to such currents seems to…

### Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions

- Physics
- 1956

The question of parity conservation in β decays and in hyperon and meson decays is examined. Possible experiments are suggested which might test parity conservation in these interactions.

### Problem of Strong $P$ and $T$ Invariance in the Presence of Instantons

- Physics
- 1978

The requirement that P and T be approximately conserved in the color gauge theory of strong interactions without arbitrary adjustment of parameters is analyzed. Several possibilities are identified,…

### Weak Interaction Singlet and Strong CP Invariance

- Physics
- 1979

Strong $\mathrm{CP}$ invariance is automatically preserved by a spontaneously broken chiral ${\mathrm{U}(1)}_{4}$ symmetry. A weak-interaction singlet heavy quark $Q$, a new scalar meson…

### Hierarchy of Interactions in Unified Gauge Theories

- Physics
- 2011

We are really measuring the sum of the cross sections vpver+Em and ppvpm. ln, l ~ 0, but since our neutrino spectrum peaks at 500 MeV/c and is down by an order of magnitude by 1500 MeV/c, we expect…