Symmetry Breaking in Escaping Ants

@article{Altshuler2005SymmetryBI,
  title={Symmetry Breaking in Escaping Ants},
  author={Ernesto Altshuler and Osvanny Ramos and Y. Nunez and J. Fern{\'a}ndez and Alfo Jos{\'e} Batista-Leyva and Claro Noda},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={2005},
  volume={166},
  pages={643 - 649}
}
The phenomenon of herding is a very general feature of the collective behavior of many species in panic conditions, including humans. It has been predicted theoretically that panic‐induced herding in individuals confined to a room can produce a nonsymmetrical use of two identical exit doors. Here we demonstrate the existence of that phenomenon in experiments, using ants as a model of pedestrians. We show that ants confined to a cell with two symmetrically located exits use both exits in… 
How initial distribution affects symmetry breaking induced by panic in ants: experiment and flee-pheromone model
TLDR
This paper explicitly distinguished two stages in ant panic escaping for the first time, thus enhancing the understanding in escaping behavior of ant colonies.
Symmetry Breaking on Density in Escaping Ants: Experiment and Alarm Pheromone Model
TLDR
It is indicated that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.
Symmetry Restoring Bifurcation in Collective Decision-Making
TLDR
A decision-making model in which symmetry-breaking is followed by a symmetry restoring bifurcation, whereby very large systems return to an even distribution of exploitation amongst options, is presented, which argues could allow collective foraging organisms to react flexibly in a dynamic environment.
Behavior of Ants Escaping from a Single-Exit Room
TLDR
To study the rules of ant behavior and group-formation phenomena, Camponotus japonicus, a species of large ant, is examined in a range of situations, and the relationship between the number of ants in a group and the group flow rate is investigated.
The Trail Less Traveled: Individual Decision-Making and Its Effect on Group Behavior
TLDR
The model shows that foraging intensity on different trails becomes increasingly asymmetric as the recruitment response of individuals varies from linear to highly non-linear, supporting the predictions of previous work and Surprisingly, it was found that the direction of the relationship between forager number and asymmetry varied depending on the specific details of the decision rule used by individuals.
Heat-induced symmetry breaking in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) escape behavior
TLDR
It is suggested that a combination of individual and grouping ants may help to optimize the likelihood of survival during evacuation, as ants asymmetrically escaped through two exits when the temperature of the heated platform was >32.75°C.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES
Simulating dynamical features of escape panic
TLDR
A model of pedestrian behaviour is used to investigate the mechanisms of panic and jamming by uncoordinated motion in crowds, and an optimal strategy for escape from a smoke-filled room is found, involving a mixture of individualistic behaviour and collective ‘herding’ instinct.
Self-organized queuing and scale-free behavior in real escape panic
TLDR
For mice escaping out of a water pool, it is found that for a critical sampling rate the escape behavior exhibits the predicted features even at short observation times, and the effect of these constraints on the dynamics of real escape panic is studied.
Oscillations and Chaos in Ant Societies
TLDR
A neural network-like model of collective short-time oscillations in ant colonies is presented, where each individual is here considered as a cellular automaton able both to move into a given available space and to interact with other (nearest) automata.
Novel type of phase transition in a system of self-driven particles.
TLDR
Numerical evidence is presented that this model results in a kinetic phase transition from no transport to finite net transport through spontaneous symmetry breaking of the rotational symmetry.
Lattice gas simulation of experimentally studied evacuation dynamics.
TLDR
This work finds that the empirically identified inefficiencies of the evacuation process can be well reproduced and focuses on the spatial dependence of the escape times on the initial positions, which is highly significant.
Traffic Dynamics of the Leaf‐Cutting Ant, Atta cephalotes
TLDR
It is found that flow rates are higher when traffic is near a 50:50 mix of outbound and returning ants than when it contains majority flows in a single direction, and a simple behavioral mechanism is proposed to allow trails to be cleared to the correct width to provide the optimal concentration.
Scaling behavior of crowd flow outside a hall
...
...