Symmetric Tragedies: Commons and Anticommons*

  title={Symmetric Tragedies: Commons and Anticommons*},
  author={James M. Buchanan and Yong J. Yoon},
  journal={The Journal of Law and Economics},
  pages={1 - 14}
An anticommons problem arises when there exist multiple rights to exclude. In a lengthy law review paper, Michael A. Heller has examined “The Tragedy of the Anticommons,” especially in regard to disappointing experiences with efforts to shift from socialist to market institutions in Russia. In an early footnote, Heller suggests that a formal economic model of the anticommons has not been developed. This paper responds to Heller's challenge. We analyze the anticommons problem in which resources… 
Confusions in the Anticommons
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The Coase theorem is most often formulated in terms of bi-lateral monopoly, for instance between a polluting factory and an affected neighbour.  Instead, we introduce multiple affected neighbours and
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Commons and Anticommons problems are the consequence of symmetric structural departures from a unified conception of property. In this paper, we endeavor to provide a dual model of property, where
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The anticommons in knowledge is distinct from the anticommons in physical objects. The former is always tragic, the latter not necessarily so. For society at large, the tragedy of the anticommons is
The Tragedy of the Anticommons: A Concise Introduction and Lexicon
This article gives a concise introduction to the ‘tragedy of the anticommons.’ The anticommons thesis is simple: when too many people own pieces of one thing, nobody can use it. Usually, private
The Anticommons and the Environment
In 1838 Augustin Cournot defined the concept of a “complementary oligopoly,�? where two (or more) independently held inputs are required in order to produce a single output. He also showed that


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Arguments for social interference developed by Pigou and Graham illustrate common misinterpretations of the meaning of cost and its variation with output, 582. — I. The private owner of a natural
The Fishery: The Objectives of Sole Ownership
  • A. Scott
  • Economics
    Journal of Political Economy
  • 1955
The rights of property, as such, have not been venerated by those master minds who have built up economic science; but the authority of the science has been wrongly assumed by some who have pushed
The economic theory of a common-property resource: The fishery
The chief aim of this paper is to examine the economic theory of natural resource utilization as it pertains to the fishing industry. It will appear, I hope, that most of the problems associated with
The Tragedy of the Commons
The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality.
Economics of welfare
VOLUME 1 Introduction D. Collard Principles and Methods of Industrial Peace, 1905, 260pp Economic Science in Relation to Practice, 1908, 32pp VOLUME 2 Wealth and Welfare, 1912, 524pp VOLUME 3
The Possibility of Cooperation@@@Cooperation: The Basis of Sociability.@@@Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior.@@@Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action.
The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is an issue of increasing concern to policy analysts. Both state control and privatisation of resources have been advocated, but