Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction

@article{Gilmore2007SymbolicAK,
  title={Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction},
  author={Camilla K. Gilmore and Shannon E. McCarthy and Elizabeth S. Spelke},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2007},
  volume={447},
  pages={589-591}
}
Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or… CONTINUE READING

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