Symbolic Hate: Intention to Intimidate, Political Ideology, and Group Association

  title={Symbolic Hate: Intention to Intimidate, Political Ideology, and Group Association},
  author={Richard L. Wiener and Erin M. Richter},
  journal={Law and Human Behavior},
In Virginia v. Black (123 S.Ct. 1536, 2003), the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment did not bar statutes that prohibit cross burnings in which defendants acted with intention to intimidate others. Using a variety of symbols including cross burnings, swastikas, confederate flags, and skin fists, the current research tested how mock jurors used alternative actor intentions to judge culpability in symbolic hate speech cases. Only partially validating the Court’s assumptions, participants… 

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