Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in termite guts

@article{Brune2014SymbioticDO,
  title={Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in termite guts},
  author={Andreas Brune},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2014},
  volume={12},
  pages={168-180}
}
  • A. Brune
  • Published 1 March 2014
  • Biology
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology
Their ability to degrade lignocellulose gives termites an important place in the carbon cycle. This ability relies on their partnership with a diverse community of bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic gut symbionts, which break down the plant fibre and ferment the products to acetate and variable amounts of methane, with hydrogen as a central intermediate. In addition, termites rely on the biosynthetic capacities of their gut microbiota as a nutritional resource. The mineralization of humus… 
Biotechnological utilization of animal gut microbiota for valorization of lignocellulosic biomass
The aim of this review is to give a summary of natural lignocellulose-degrading systems focusing mainly on animal digestive tracts of wood-feeding insects and ruminants in order to find effective
Insect Gut Bacteria and Their Potential Application in Degradation of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review
TLDR
The present manuscript encompasses the potential role of insect gut bacteria, aspects of colonization, and role in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass.
Uncovering the Potential of Termite Gut Microbiome for Lignocellulose Bioconversion in Anaerobic Batch Bioreactors
TLDR
This study demonstrates that termite-gut microbiomes constitute a reservoir of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria that can be harnessed in artificial conditions for biomass conversion processes that lead to the production of useful molecules.
Potential of termite gut microbiota for biomethanation of lignocellulosic wastes: current status and future perspectives
TLDR
Improved understanding of termites and its associated symbionts can result in important technological breakthroughs that will further establish the potential of termite gut microbiota for biomethanation of lignocellulosic biomass.
Mycoremediation of Lignocelluloses
TLDR
This review describes remediation of lignocelluloses by fungi, properties of fungi, their spatial distribution and the mechanisms of action which render them attractive candidates in biotechnological applications like biopulping, animal feed, genetic engineering and space exploration.
Impacts of biofilms on the conversion of cellulose
TLDR
These topics are discussed and attempts to realize the benefits of biofilms in targeted applications such as the consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulose are highlighted.
Lignocellulose Degradation by Termites
TLDR
This chapter focuses on the dual cellulolytic system in lower and higher termites and provides an update on the current research strategies through culture-dependent and culture-independent “-omic” approaches.
Roles of Verrucomicrobia in lower termite hindgut
TLDR
Study of genome sequences, mRNA and proteins in several strains of bacteria in the phylum “Verrucomicrobia” isolated from the hindgut of termites Reticulitermes flavipes reveal that the bacteria have a potential role in degrading lignocellulose.
A Study of the Gut Bacterial Community of Reticulitermes virginicus Exposed to Chitosan Treatment
TLDR
The results suggest that chitosan treatment not only affects the structure of the microbial community in the gut, but other treatments such as starving also cause shifts in termite gut communities.
Complementary Contribution of Fungi and Bacteria to Lignocellulose Digestion in the Food Stored by a Neotropical Higher Termite
TLDR
It is confirmed that food nodules express a distinct set of CAZy genes suggesting that stored plant material is initially decomposed by enzymes that target the lignin and complex polysaccharides from fungi and bacteria before the passage through the gut, where it is further targeted by a complementary set of cellulases, xylanases, and esterases produced by the gut microbiota and the termite host.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 170 REFERENCES
Biomass Recalcitrance: Engineering Plants and Enzymes for Biofuels Production
TLDR
Here, the natural resistance of plant cell walls to microbial and enzymatic deconstruction is considered, collectively known as “biomass recalcitrance,” which is largely responsible for the high cost of lignocellulose conversion.
A cellulase gene of termite origin
TLDR
The first insect cellulase-endoding gene to be identified, RsEG, which encodes an endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) in the termite Reticulitermes speratus is described.
Proteome insights into the symbiotic relationship between a captive colony of Nasutitermes corniger and its hindgut microbiome
TLDR
The metaproteome of the bacterial community resident in the hindgut paunch of the wood-feeding ‘higher’ termite (Nasutitermes) and identified 886 proteins, 197 of which have known enzymatic function, suggest that the activity associated with these enzymes may have more of a role in the symbiotic relationship between the hindGut microbial community and its termite host.
Iron reduction in the metal‐rich guts of wood‐feeding termites
TLDR
The iron in the guts of wood-feeding termites may influence the pathways of carbon- and electron-flow, as well as microbial community composition in these tiny ecosystems of global importance.
Acetogenesis from H2 plus CO2 by spirochetes from termite guts.
TLDR
Findings imply an important role for spirochetes intermite nutrition, help to reconcile the dominance of acetogenesis over methanogenesis as an H2 sink in termite hindguts, and suggest that the motility of termite gut protozoa by means of attached spiroChetes may be based on interspecies H2 transfer.
Role of Microorganisms in the Digestion of Lignocellulose by Termites
TLDR
Most of the synthesis of lignocellulose occurs in terrestrial ecosystems where it is balanced, or nearly so, by the decomposition/respiration side of the carbon cycle (63).
Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite
TLDR
A metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community resident in the hindgut paunch of a wood-feeding ‘higher’ Nasutitermes species shows the presence of a large, diverse set of bacterial genes for cellulose and xylan hydrolysis, the first system-wide gene analysis of a microbial community specialized towards plant lignocellulose degradation.
Genome of an Endosymbiont Coupling N2 Fixation to Cellulolysis Within Protist Cells in Termite Gut
TLDR
The complete genome sequence of the uncultured Bacteroidales endosymbiont of the cellulolytic protist Pseudotrichonympha grassii is presented, revealing its ability to fix dinitrogen and recycle putative host nitrogen wastes for biosynthesis of diverse amino acids and cofactors and import glucose and xylose as energy and carbon sources.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...