Swimming of bacterium Bacillus subtilis with multiple bundles of flagella.

  title={Swimming of bacterium Bacillus subtilis with multiple bundles of flagella.},
  author={Javad Najafi and Florian Altegoer and Gert Bange and Christian Wagner},
  journal={Soft matter},
We characterize the bundle properties for three different strains of B. subtilis bacteria with various numbers of flagella. Our study reveals that, surprisingly, the number of bundles is independent of the number of flagella, and the formation of three bundles is always the most frequent case. We assume that this relates to the fact that different mutants have the same body length. There is no significant difference between the bundle width and length for distinct strains, but the projected… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Flagellar arrangements in elongated peritrichous bacteria: bundle formation and swimming properties

This work analyzes the bundle formation process and swimming properties of Bacillus subtilis -like cells considering random, helical, and ring-like arrangements of flagella by means of mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations, and finds that a regular pattern provides no advantage in terms of swimming speed compared to random anchoring, but yields more likely single-bundle configurations.

Effect of ligand sensing on flagellar bundle formation in bacteria

Mere sensing of a ligand temporarily increases the motor torque and CCW bias that causes tight flagellar bundles and leads to smooth swimming trajectories at high speeds, providing strong evidence of a new signalling pathway that controls the flageLLar motor speed to enable the bacteria to respond efficiently to changes in its environment.

Flagellar rotational features of an optically confined bacterium at high frequency and temporal resolution reveal the microorganism’s response to changes in the fluid environment

Rotations of the flagella control the movement of a peritrichous (multiflagellar) bacterium in fluids, the run and tumble events being caused through modulations in the flagella’s collective rotation



Fluid mechanics of swimming bacteria with multiple flagella.

Swimming of multiflagellated bacteria is investigated numerically by the boundary element method and shows higher propulsive efficiency (distance traveled per one flagellar rotation) over a bacterium with a single thick helix, which indicates that efficiency is something multiflant bacteria are assigning less priority to than to motility.

Flagellar number governs bacterial spreading and transport efficiency

It is shown that the flagellar number affects the intrinsic dynamics of swimming bacteria and governs their transport efficiency, and decreasing the number of flagella Nf reduces the average turning angle between two successive run phases and enhances the run time and the directional persistence of the run phase.

Role of body rotation in bacterial flagellar bundling.

  • T. Powers
  • Biology
    Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
  • 2002
Using resistive-force theory, it is shown that the counterrotation of the cell body necessary for torque balance is sufficient to wrap the filaments into a bundle, even in the absence of the swirling flows produced by each individual filament.

Secondary bacterial flagellar system improves bacterial spreading by increasing the directional persistence of swimming

It is proposed that in S. putrefaciens CN-32, cell propulsion and directional switches are mainly mediated by the polar flagellar system, while the secondary filament increases the directional persistence of swimming and thus of spreading in the environment.

A field guide to bacterial swarming motility

  • D. Kearns
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Microbiology
  • 2010
The requirements that define swarming motility in diverse bacterial model systems are reviewed, including an increase in the number of flagella per cell, the secretion of a surfactant to reduce surface tension and allow spreading, and movement in multicellular groups rather than as individuals.

Cell morphology governs directional control in swimming bacteria

The results show that changes in the motility pattern of microorganisms can be induced by simple morphological variation, and raise the possibility thatChanges in swimming pattern may be triggered by both morphological plasticity and selection on morphology.

Swimming efficiency of bacterium Escherichia coli

The propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power output to the rotary power input provided by the motors, is found to be ≈2%, which is consistent with the efficiency predicted theoretically for a rigid helical coil.

The wiggling trajectories of bacteria

Abstract Many motile bacteria display wiggling trajectories, which correspond to helical swimming paths. Wiggling trajectories result from flagella pushing off-axis relative to the cell body and

Hydrodynamic attraction of swimming microorganisms by surfaces.

It is demonstrated theoretically that hydrodynamic interactions of the swimming cells with solid surfaces lead to their reorientation in the direction parallel to the surfaces, as well as their attraction by the closest wall, which compares favorably with measurements.