Sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus: a potential new player in glucose sensing in the hypothalamus

@article{Kohno2017SweetTR,
  title={Sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus: a potential new player in glucose sensing in the hypothalamus},
  author={Daisuke Kohno},
  journal={The Journal of Physiological Sciences},
  year={2017},
  volume={67},
  pages={459-465}
}
  • D. Kohno
  • Published 4 April 2017
  • Biology
  • The Journal of Physiological Sciences
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The feeding center senses the systemic energy status by detecting hormone and nutrient levels for homeostatic regulation, resulting in the control of food intake, heat production, and glucose production and uptake. The concentration of glucose is sensed by two types of glucose-sensing neurons in the feeding center: glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. Previous studies have mainly focused on glucose… 
Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses
TLDR
Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Emerging Concepts in Brain Glucose Metabolic Functions: From Glucose Sensing to How the Sweet Taste of Glucose Regulates Its Own Metabolism in Astrocytes and Neurons
TLDR
This review integrates new data on the mechanisms of brain glucose sensing and metabolism including the sweet taste T1R2 + T1R3-mediated brain glucose-sensing and metabolism in brain glucose metabolic disorders.
Sweet Taste Is Complex: Signaling Cascades and Circuits Involved in Sweet Sensation
TLDR
A comprehensive understanding is stimulated of how sweet compounds signal to the brain upon taste bud cells activation, and how this gustatory process is integrated with gastro-intestinal sugar sensing to create a hedonic and metabolic representation of sugars, which finally drives the authors' behavior.
Sweet taste receptors as a tool for an amplifying pathway of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells
TLDR
The results suggest that STR in the gastrointestinal tract might play important roles in nutrient or glucose sensing which helps to regulate body energy and immune balance.
Chicken taste receptors and perception: recent advances in our understanding of poultry nutrient-sensing systems
TLDR
The recent histological, molecular biological, and behavioural evidence indicates that chickens have well-developed nutrient-sensing systems.
Effects of Non-nutritive Sweeteners on Sweet Taste Processing and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Eating Behavior
TLDR
Non-nutritive sweeteners are increasingly used as a replacement for nutritive sugars as means to quench the desire for “sweets” while contributing few or no dietary calories, but there is concern that NNS may uncouple the evolved relationship between sweet taste and post-ingestive neuroendocrine signaling.
Central regulation of food intake in fish: an evolutionary perspective.
TLDR
The existing knowledge of specific fish features conditioning food intake, anatomical homologies and analogies between both groups as well as the main signalling pathways of neuroendocrine and metabolic nature involved in the homeostatic and hedonic central regulation of food intake are focussed on.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 68 REFERENCES
Sweet Taste Receptor Serves to Activate Glucose- and Leptin-Responsive Neurons in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus and Participates in Glucose Responsiveness
TLDR
Endogenous sweet molecules including glucose may regulate energy homeostasis through sweet taste receptors on glucose-and leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.
Sweet Taste Signaling Functions as a Hypothalamic Glucose Sensor
TLDR
In vivo studies in mice demonstrated that the hypothalamic expression of taste-related genes is regulated by the nutritional state of the animal, with food deprivation significantly increasing expression levels of Tas1r1 and Tas1 r2 in hypothalamus, but not in cortex, and exposed mouse hypothalamic cells to a low-glucose medium, indicating that taste-like signaling in hypothalamic neurons does not require intracellular glucose oxidation.
Gut sweet taste receptors and their role in metabolism.
TLDR
The function of the gut sweet taste receptor T1R2/T1R3 in sensing sweet compounds, as well as its role in gastrointestinal peptide secretion and glucose metabolism are discussed.
Sensing the fuels: glucose and lipid signaling in the CNS controlling energy homeostasis
TLDR
The purpose of this review is to outline the current understanding of fuel-sensing mechanisms in the hypothalamus, to integrate the recent findings in this field, and to address the potential role of dysregulation in these pathways in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Functional roles of the sweet taste receptor in oral and extraoral tissues
TLDR
The newly recognized role of the sweet taste receptor makes this receptor a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic dysfunctions, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
A sweet taste receptor‐dependent mechanism of glucosensing in hypothalamic tanycytes
TLDR
It is demonstrated that tanycytes in rodents respond to non‐nutritive sweeteners known to be ligands of the sweet taste (Tas1r2/T Tas1r3) receptor, and that thesweet taste receptor mediates glucosensing in about 60% of glucosensitive tany Cytokine while the remaining 40% use some other, as yet unknown mechanism.
The L-Cell in Nutritional Sensing and the Regulation of Appetite
TLDR
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract senses the ingestion of food and responds by signaling to the brain to promote satiation and satiety, and at least part of the gut–brain response seems to be due to direct sensing of macronutrients by L-cells, by mechanisms including specific nutrient-sensing receptors.
ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the hypothalamus are essential for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis
TLDR
It is demonstrated that KATP channels are important in glucose sensing in VMH GR neurons, and are essential for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis.
Mediobasal Hypothalamic Leucine Sensing Regulates Food Intake through Activation of a Hypothalamus–Brainstem Circuit
TLDR
This work demonstrates that MBH leucine engages a neural energy regulatory circuit by stimulating POMC (proopiomelanocortin), oxytocin, and neurons within the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract to acutely suppress food intake by reducing meal size.
Glucose sensing by POMC neurons regulates glucose homeostasis and is impaired in obesity
TLDR
It is concluded that obesity-induced, UCP2-mediated loss of glucose sensing in glucose-excited neurons might have a pathogenic role in the development of type 2 diabetes.
...
...