Suzerainty, Semi-Sovereignty, and International Legal Hierarchies on China's Borderlands

  title={Suzerainty, Semi-Sovereignty, and International Legal Hierarchies on China's Borderlands},
  author={Yuan Zhu},
  journal={Asian Journal of International Law},
  • Yuan Zhu
  • Published 1 July 2020
  • Law
  • Asian Journal of International Law
The concept of semi-sovereignty, a now obsolete category of international entities possessing limited sovereignty, remains hazily understood. However, the historical examination of how semi-sovereignty was defined and practised during the long nineteenth century can provide insights on the interplay between authority and control within the hierarchies of international relations. This paper examines one specific type of semi-sovereignty—namely, suzerainty—which is often used to describe China's… 
Parliamentary options for a multi-ethnic state: sovereignty, frontier governance, and representation in early twentieth-century China
ABSTRACT This article reconstructs two modes of parliamentary representation of (post-)imperial diversity in early twentieth-century China. One model foresaw a differentiated representation of the
State recognition and dynamic sovereignty
  • George Kyris
  • Sociology
    European Journal of International Relations
  • 2022
This study reflects on sovereignty as dynamic, whereby associated conditions, like recognition, fluctuate in quality and quantity within a unit and over time, and adds to existing discussions that


Strategic Hypocrisy: The British Imperial Scripting of Tibet's Geopolitical Identity
The protests in and around Tibet in 2008 show that Tibet's status within China remains unsettled. The West is not an outsider to the Tibet question, which is defined primarily in terms of the debate
Learning Western Techniques of Empire: Republican China and the New Legal Framework for Managing Tibet
  • M. Carrai
  • History
    Leiden Journal of International Law
  • 2017
Abstract At the end of the nineteenth century, China found itself torn between its imperial past and its nation-state future. By the time it became a Republic in 1911, China had to redefine its
Autonomous Provinces and the Problem of ‘Semi-Sovereignty’ in European International Law
Abstract Through an analysis of European and Ottoman international law textbooks, this paper explores the problem of ‘semi-sovereignty’ in the Ottoman Empire and connects this to the question of the
The Status of Outer Mongolia in International Law
The steady decline during the last half-century in the degree of effective control wielded by China over the borderlands of her great empire has been accompanied by widespread confusion concerning
Sovereign Inequalities and Hierarchy in Anarchy: American Power and International Society
How is unrivalled American power reshaping 21st-century international society? Is the United States an empire, in fact or in the making? This article attempts to elaborate the conceptual resources
Tibet Lost in Translation: Sovereignty, Suzerainty and International Order Transformation, 1904–1906
Abstract How did Tibet become part of the modern Chinese state? Even today, as Tibet is an internationally recognized part of the People’s Republic of China, the evasive meaning of ‘Chinese
Imperialism, sovereignty, and the making of international law
Acknowledgements Table of cases Table of treaties Introduction 1. Francisco de Vitoria and the colonial origins of international law (i) Introduction (ii) Vitoria and the problem of universal law
China's Tibet Policy
This major study analyses the traditional modes of Sino-Tibetan relations in order to unearth general patterns beyond partisan points of view. It sheds light on contemporary issues in the
The Making of Global International Relations
This book presents a challenge to the discipline of international relations (IR) to rethink itself, in the light of both its own modern origins, and the two centuries of world history that have