Suv39h-Mediated Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation Directs DNA Methylation to Major Satellite Repeats at Pericentric Heterochromatin

@article{Lehnertz2003Suv39hMediatedHH,
  title={Suv39h-Mediated Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation Directs DNA Methylation to Major Satellite Repeats at Pericentric Heterochromatin},
  author={Bernhard Lehnertz and Yoshihide Ueda and Alwin A.H.A. Derijck and Ulrich Braunschweig and Laura P{\'e}rez-Burgos and Stefan Kubicek and Taiping Chen and En Li and Thomas Jenuwein and Antoine Hfm Peters},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={13},
  pages={1192-1200}
}
DNA methylation in ES cells requires the lysine methyltransferase G9a but not its catalytic activity
TLDR
It is demonstrated that embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking the H3K9 HMTase G9a show a significant reduction in DNA methylation of retrotransposons, major satellite repeats and densely methylated CpG‐rich promoters, and that introduction of catalytically inactive G 9a transgenes partially ‘rescues’ theDNA methylation defect observed in G9A−/− cells.
Histone H3-K9 Methyltransferase ESET Is Essential for Early Development
TLDR
It is found that zygotic Eset expression begins at the blastocyst stage and is ubiquitous during postimplantation mouse development, while the maternal Eset transcripts are present in oocytes and persist throughout preimplantations development.
Locus-Specific Control of DNA Methylation by the Arabidopsis SUVH5 Histone Methyltransferase[W]
TLDR
Although SUVH4 is the major H3 K9 MTase, the SUVH5 protein also has histone MTase activity in vitro and contributes to the maintenance of H3 mK9 and CMT3-mediated non-CG methylation in vivo, suggesting different mechanisms for recruiting or activating SUVH enzymes at different heterochromatic sequences.
Direct readout of heterochromatic H3K9me3 regulates DNMT1-mediated maintenance DNA methylation
TLDR
The replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) domain of maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 is identified as a specific reader for H3K9me3/H3Ub, with the recognition mode distinct from the typical trimethyl-lysine reader.
Dual histone H3 methylation marks at lysines 9 and 27 required for interaction with CHROMOMETHYLASE3
TLDR
This work shows that the chromodomain of CMT3 can directly interact with the N‐terminal tail of histone H3, but only when it is simultaneously methylated at both the H3K9 and H3k27 positions, and suggests a model in which H 3K9 methylation by KYP, and H2K27 methylationby an unknown enzyme provide a combinatorial histone code for the recruitment of C MT3 to silent loci.
Lysine methyltransferase G9a is not required for DNMT3A/3B anchoring to methylated nucleosomes and maintenance of DNA methylation in somatic cells
TLDR
The data suggest that G9a is not involved in maintenance of DNA methylation in somatic cells but might play a role in re-initiation of de novo methylation after treatment with hypomethylating drugs, thus serving as a potential target for combinatorial treatments strategies involving DNMTs inhibitors.
DNMT3L connects unmethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 to de novo methylation of DNA
TLDR
DNMT3L recognizes histone H3 tails that are unmethylated at lysine 4 and induces de novo DNA methylation by recruitment or activation of DNMT3A2, and substitution of key residues in the binding site eliminated the H3 tail–DN MT3L interaction.
Direct readout of heterochromatic H3K9me3 regulates DNMT1-mediated maintenance DNA methylation
TLDR
This study identifies the replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) domain of maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, a module known to bind the ubiquitylated H3 (H3Ub), as a specific reader for H3K9me3/H3 Ub, with the recognition mode distinct from the typical trimethyl-lysine reader.
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TLDR
The isolation of KRYPTONITE, a methyltransferase gene specific to H3 Lys 9, identified in a mutant screen for suppressors of gene silencing at the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN (SUP) locus is reported, which suggests that CpNpG DNA methylation is controlled by histone H 3 Lys 9 methylation, through interaction of CMT3 with methylated chromatin.
Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins
TLDR
It is shown that mammalian methyltransferases that selectively methylate histone H3 on lysine 9 (Suv39h HMTases) generate a binding site for HP1 proteins—a family of heterochromatic adaptor molecules implicated in both gene silencing and supra-nucleosomal chromatin structure.
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The results suggest that transposon methylation may be guided by histone H3 methylation in plant genomes, which would account for the epigenetic inheritance of hypomethylated DNA once histone Lysine 4 methylation patterns are altered.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Immunolocalization of Suv39h2 protein during spermatogenesis indicates enriched distribution at the heterochromatin from the leptotene to the round sperMatid stage, suggesting an additional function of the Suv 39h2 HMTase in organizing meiotic heterochromeatin that may even impart an epigenetic imprint to the male germ line.
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