Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

  title={Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy},
  author={John D. C. Linnell and Henrik Br{\o}seth and John Odden and Erlend B. Nilsen},
  journal={Environmental Management},
The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development… 

Quota hunting of Eurasian lynx in Norway: patterns of hunter selection, hunter efficiency and monitoring accuracy

Harvesting large carnivores is often a controversial issue and thus requires a higher precision than other types of recreational harvest. Despite this, management programmes are often initiated based

Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores

It is illustrated how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions‐making.

Roe Deer Population Growth and Lynx Predation along a Gradient of Environmental Productivity and Climate in Norway

Abstract: The extent to which large carnivores compete with hunters for harvestable populations of wild ungulates is a topic of widespread controversy in many areas of the world where carnivore

Harvest models of small populations of a large carnivore using Bayesian forecasting

A Bayesian state‐space model is developed to support adaptive management of Eurasian lynx harvesting in Scandinavia and is used to predict the probability that the forecasted population size will be below or above the management objectives when subjected to different harvest quotas.

The spatio-temporal distribution of wild and domestic ungulates modulates lynx kill rates in a multi-use landscape

The results underline the complexity of carnivore–ungulate trophic interactions in multi-use landscapes where livestock and wildlife co-occur, and suggest that changes in densities of prey, predators or both may produce undesired outcomes, if such complexity is not taken into account during the decision-making process for management and conservation.

Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes

It is shown that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records, and coexistence alongside humans has become possible, argue the authors.

Building biological realism into wolf management policy: the development of the population approach in Europe

During the last few decades wolf management objectives have largely switched from state sponsored control to conservation. Following this change in status there has been a succession of changes in



Home Range Size and Choice of Management Strategy for Lynx in Scandinavia

It was concluded that very few protected areas contained sufficient forest to provide space for more than a few individuals in Scandinavia, and research must be aimed at understanding the ecology of these conflicts, and finding solutions.

Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable

In a recent analysis Woodroffe (2000) found a positive relationship between historical patterns of large carnivore extinction probability and human population density. However, much of the data in

Status and conservation of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Europe in 2001

The Action Plan for the Conservation of the Eurasian Lynx in Europe (Breitenmoser et al. 2000) was based on data up to 1995. This new report presents data up to 2001 (with some more recent

Foraging of lynxes in a managed boreal-alpine environment

The importance of agricultural land as a foraging habitat and the dominance of livestock in the diet in remoter areas indicate that the lynx has responded to agriculture and reindeer husbandry during the past century by switching from smaff game to ungulates.

Temporal and spatial development of red deer harvesting in Europe: biological and cultural factors

Summary 1. Deer numbers have increased dramatically throughout Europe and North America over the last century, but empirical analyses of variation in harvesting and the influence of biological and

Large predators in the Alps: The fall and rise of man's competitors


Abstract Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) are responsible for significant depredation on domestic lambs in Norway. Recreational hunting of lynx is widely used to limit lynx population growth and to attempt

Prey density, environmental productivity and home-range size in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)

Sex emerged as a significant explanatory variable with males having larger home ranges than females and the size of male home-ranges increased faster with decreasing prey density than for females, which supports widely held predictions that variation in home-range size is due to variation in prey density.

Adapting Adaptive Management to a Cultural Understanding of Land Use Conflicts

Adaptive management models are designed to include a variety of stakeholders, but they may still exclude significant groups. Drawing on two Norwegian studies of conflicts over large carnivores, one