Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector.

Abstract

A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H(2)CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H(2) and CO(2) recycled from the H(2)-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H(2)CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce approximately 30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H(2)CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H(2) storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H(2)CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H(2) in the H(2)CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H(2)CAR is that there is no additional CO(2) release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO(2).

Extracted Key Phrases

7 Figures and Tables

Showing 1-10 of 24 references

Science

  • Agrawal
  • 2007

Basic Petroleum Statistics

  • 2006

Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

  • 2006

Chem Rev

  • Gw Huber, S Iborra, A Corma
  • 2006

Clean Technol Environ Policy

  • X Qin, T Mohan, M El-Halwagi, G Cornforth, B Mccarl
  • 2006

Energy Conversion Manage

  • Z Yuehong, W Hao, X Zhihong
  • 2006

Nat Biotechnol

  • C Schubert
  • 2006

Proc Natl Acad Sci

  • Ns Lewis, Dg Nocera
  • 2006

Statistical Review of World Energy 2006, www.bp.com/ productlanding.do?categoryIdϭ6842&contentIdϭ7021390

  • 2006

AIChE J

  • R Agrawal, M Offutt, Mp Ramage
  • 2005
Showing 1-10 of 15 extracted citations