Sustainability of three apple production systems

  title={Sustainability of three apple production systems},
  author={John P Reganold and Jerry D. Glover and Preston K. Andrews and Herbert R. Hinman},
Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of… 
Organic agriculture in the twenty-first century
Although organic agriculture has an untapped role to play when it comes to the establishment of sustainable farming systems, no single approach will safely feed the planet and a blend of organic and other innovative farming systems is needed.
Reconciling Pesticide Reduction with Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Arable Farming
It is found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role ofcrop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies and appear as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs.
Organic Farming Lessens Reliance on Pesticides and Promotes Public Health by Lowering Dietary Risks
Organic agriculture is a production system that relies on prevention, ecological processes, biodiversity, mechanical processes, and natural cycles to control pests and maintain productivity.
Organic Farming History and Techniques
Organic farming involves holistic production systems that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms, thereby minimizing their deleterious effect on
Sustainability of Organic, Conventional, and Integrated Apple Orchards
This on-farm study was published in Nature in 2001 and examined organic, conventional, and integrated apple production systems for six growing seasons between 1994 and 1999.
Environmental Impact of Different Agricultural Management Practices: Conventional vs. Organic Agriculture
Organic agriculture refers to a farming system that enhance soil fertility through maximizing the efficient use of local resources, while foregoing the use of agrochemicals, the use of Genetic
Economic Profitability Analysis of Rainfed Organic Farming in SW Spain
The economic importance of organic production systems is growing year on year. Producers who wish to convert their farms to organic farming face significant transition costs due to changes in
Sustainability Assessment of the Green Compost Production Chain from Agricultural Waste: A Case Study in Southern Italy
Horticultural farms are faced with the problem of disposing of huge amounts of agricultural by-products whose management requires sustainable solutions. Composting means to recycle organic waste to


Systematic method for rating soil quality of conventional , organic , and integrated apple orchards in Washington State
Much remains to be known concerning the complex relationships between specific soil property measurements and overall soil quality. The objective of this study was to advance our understanding of
Legume-based cropping systems have reduced carbon and nitrogen losses
In agricultural systems, optimization of carbon and nitrogen cycling through soil organic matter can improve soil fertility and yields while reducing negative environmental impact. A basic tenet that
Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: the need for sustainable and efficient practices.
  • D. Tilman
  • Medicine, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1999
The anticipated next doubling of global food production would be associated with approximately 3-fold increases in nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates, a doubling of the irrigated land area, and an 18% increase in cropland, which would have dramatic impacts on the diversity, composition, and functioning of the remaining natural ecosystems.
A Method to Measure the Environmental Impact of Pesticides
This bulletin presents a method to calculate the environmental impact of most common fruit and vegetable pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, fungicides and herbicides) used in commercial agriculture.
Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties.
The use of ecologically based management strategies can increase the sustainability of agricultural production while reducing off-site consequences and have serious local, regional, and global environmental consequences.
Energy And Food
In this review we assess the available data on energy use in the world food system and project needed energy inputs for the future. The use of fossil fuels to increase food production is a relatively
Genetic diversity and disease control in rice
The results support the view that intraspecific crop diversification provides an ecological approach to disease control that can be highly effective over a large area and contribute to the sustainability of crop production.
Handbook of Energy Utilization In Agriculture
The aim of this volume is to collect and present available data, both published and unpublished, on energy use in agriculture and forestry production. Energy analyses for some sciences such as
Environmental Sustainability: Universal and Non‐Negotiable
The paper describes the concept of natural capital and uses the concept to present four alternative definitions of environmental sustainability and nuances the I = PAT identity and starts to disaggregate the components of sustainability into more dynamic formulations.