The survival of five inoculated Listeria monocytogenes strains (DCS 31, DCS 184, AT3E, HT4E, and HR5E) was studied in dry fermented sausages prepared using two different starter cultures (starter A and B) with or without a protective Lactobacillus plantarum DDEN 2205 strain. L. monocytogenes was detected throughout ripening in every sausage sample in which the L. plantarum DDEN 2205 strain had not been used. The use of either starter A, with a high concentration of protective culture, or starter B, with a low concentration of protective culture, resulted in L. monocytogenes-negative sausages after 17 days of ripening. Differential survival was noted among the L. monocytogenes strains during fermentation. Strains AT3E and DCS 31 survived in sausages with protective cultures more often than did the other strains, whereas HT4E and HR5E were inhibited during ripening by all starter and protective cultures used. Protective cultures such as L. plantarum may be used as part of a hurdle strategy in dry sausage processing, but variations in susceptibility of different L. monocytogenes strains can create problems if other hurdles are not included.