Third-stage larvae (L3) of Onchocerca volvulus were implanted in diffusion chambers in chimpanzees, mangabey monkeys, rhesus monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and inbred strains of mice, jirds, and rats for 3-63 days. At different times during the experimental period, larvae were recovered and assessed for their viability and development. Survival and growth rates were equal regardless of whether the implanted larvae were fresh or cryopreserved. Survival and growth rates of the larvae did not differ among the primate and rodent hosts tested, with the exception of squirrel monkeys and rats, which were resistant to infection. Molting from L3 to fourth-stage larvae began on day 3 and continued through day 14 in the primates and rodents. The primate and rodent models developed in the present study will be useful for the study of the immunology and chemotherapy of onchocerciasis.