The present study aimed to verify the factors that interfere with the success of endodontic treatment of traumatized primary teeth as well as to determine the success level of the proposed treatment, through survival analysis. The research was conducted through the analysis of dental traumatism records and attached radiological exams of patients assisted by the Assistance Program for the Traumatized Patient at UFSC (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). Fifty-one dental records of patients aged between 10 and 60 months were analyzed. These patients had their traumatized teeth endodontically treated (n = 51), according to the indications of the UFSC protocol. In order to evaluate possible interference factors affecting the success of the endodontic treatment, the following items were analyzed: age of the child at the beginning of the endodontic treatment (over or below 36 months), trauma type (mild or severe) pathological root resorption type (replacement or inflammatory), localization of the pathological root resorption (in the apical third or in the middle third), bone resorption (absent or present), alteration of the soft tissue (absent or present), condition of the pulp tissue (vitality or necrosis) and trauma recurrence (absent or present). Through the chi-squared test (chi(2) = 9.594, P < 0.05) and survival analysis, it was verified that trauma recurrence in the same tooth is a factor that interferes in the success of endodontic treatment. It was also observed, through survival analysis, that levels of success of endodontic treatments are stabilized in the 19th month. A period of 48 months of follow up was observed. It was also verified that most failures occurred between the 7th and 12th months counting from the beginning of the endodontic treatment. It was concluded that endodontic treatment of traumatized primary teeth, performed according to the UFSC protocol, enables the maintenance of the traumatized tooth in acceptable conditions in the buccal cavity up to its physiological resorption, and that trauma recurrence is a factor that leads to treatment failure.