INTRODUCTION The influx and efflux of military personnel in the possible endemic areas of leishmaniasis provided the impetus for research on the sandflies on Marambaia Island. METHODS Sandflies were collected with light traps installed in the 3 ecotypes of 3 areas chosen for their particular landscape aspects. RESULTS In 2009, were collected 32,006 specimens of sandflies belonging to 13 species. The species that showed highest density were Nyssomyia intermedia and Migoneimyia migonei. CONCLUSIONS N. intermedia and M. migonei are the principal vectors of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil; thus, extension studies related to the eco-epidemiology of these species of Marambaia Island are essential.